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Turkish Private Law
Ağustos 2020 / 2. Baskı / 471 Syf.
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Turkish law has undergone drastic changes over the last 15 years. Indeed, new laws have been enacted and several laws have been amended to modernize and bring Turkish legislation in line with the EU acquis communautaire. For this reason, this book aims to provide an overview of the current Turkish private law. It aspires to serve as a blueprint not only for foreign students and academics, but also for international law firms and organizations. Great care has been given to incorporate the most recent legislation, court decisions, and statistical information.

This book includes eighteen chapters and deals with Civil Law, Property Law, Law of Obligations, Individual Labour Law, Collective Labour Law, Social Security Law, Law on Occupational Health and Safety, Law of Commercial Enterprise, Company Law, Law of Negotiable Instruments, Maritime Law, Insurance Law, Intellectual Property Law, Competition Law, Civil Procedure Law, Execution Law, Bankruptcy and Insolvency Law, and Private International Law.

Konu Başlıkları
Civil Law
Labour Law
Company Law
Maritime Law
Insurance Law
Intellectual Property Law
Competition Law
Civil Procedure Law
Barkod: 9789750261701
Yayın Tarihi: Ağustos 2020
Baskı Sayısı:  2
Ebat: 16x24
Sayfa Sayısı: 471
Yayınevi: Seçkin Yayıncılık
Kapak Türü: Karton Kapaklı
Dili: İngilizce
Ekler: -

 

İÇİNDEKİLER
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Chapter 1
TURKISH CIVIL LAW
 Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER Res. Asst. Yasin BÜYÜK Res. Asst. M. Hasanali AKAY Res. Asst. Melike ERGÜN  37
Chapter 2
TURKISH PROPERTY LAW
 Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER  59
Chapter 3
SELECTED CONTRACTS IN TURKISH LAW OF OBLIGATIONS
 Res. Asst. Hasanali AKAY Res. Asst. Murat UÇAK  79
Chapter 4
TURKISH INDIVIDUAL LABOUR LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Ömer UĞUR  111
Chapter 5
TURKISH COLLECTIVE LABOUR LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Muhammed İsmail ÇEKİÇ Res. Asst. Didem YALÇINTAŞ  139
Chapter 6
TURKISH SOCIAL SECURITY LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Ebru KARABACAK  161
Chapter 7
TURKISH LAW ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Asst. Prof. Dr. M. Halit KORKUSUZ  209
Chapter 8
TURKISH LAW OF COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE
 Res. Asst. Emin ÇAMURCU  223
Chapter 9
TURKISH COMPANY LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  239
Chapter 10
TURKISH LAW OF NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
 Res. Asst. Hasan Onur AKAY  261
Chapter 11
TURKISH MARITIME LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hacı KARA  279
Chapter 12
TURKISH INSURANCE LAW
 Res. Asst. Sena YAZICI  347
Chapter 13
TURKISH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW
 Asst. Prof. Dr. Özgür ARIKAN  365
Chapter 14
TURKISH COMPETITION LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  385
Chapter 15
TURKISH CIVIL PROCEDURE LAW
 Res. Asst. Dr. Elif Irmak BÜYÜK  411
Chapter 16
TURKISH EXECUTION LAW
 Nefise Gökçen GÜRCAN Res. Asst. Çağatay Serdar ŞAHİN  445
Chapter 17
TURKISH BANKRUPTCY LAW
 Res. Asst. Mehmet Akif GÜL  463
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD  5
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS  7
TABLE OF CONTENTS  11
Chapter 1
TURKISH CIVIL LAW
 Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER Res. Asst. Yasin BÜYÜK Res. Asst. M. Hasanali AKAY Res. Asst. Melike ERGÜN  37
I. History  37
II. Introduction  38
III. Law of Persons  38
A. Beginning and End of Personality:  39
B. Ability to be Subject of the Rights and Obligations:  39
C. Capacity to Act:  40
1. Full Capacity (Art. 9–13 TCC)  40
2. Full Incapacity (Art. 15 TCC)  41
3. Limited Capacity (Art. 16 TCC)  41
IV. Family Law  42
A. Engagement  42
B. Marriage  42
1. Formalities of Marriage  43
2. Marriage Impediments (Art. 129–133 TCC)  43
C. Divorce  44
V. Law of Succession  45
A. Forced Heirs  46
1. Wills and Testamentary Contracts  46
VI. Turkish Obligation Law – General Provisions  47
A. Contracts  47
1. Capacity to Contract  48
2. Formation of the Contract  48
3. Conditions of Validity  49
a. Immorality  49
b. Public Order  49
c. Imperative Rules  49
d. Personal Rights  50
e. Impossibility  50
4. Form of the Contract  50
5. Genuineness of Assent  51
a. Mistake  51
b. Fraud  52
c. Coercion  52
B. Torts  52
1. General  52
2. Conditions  52
3. Compensation  53
C. Unjust Enrichment  53
VII. Special Provisions  53
A. Classification of Contracts That Are Regulated By Special Provisions  54
1. Classification of contracts by their subject and purpose.  54
a. Sales Contracts  54
b. Barter  54
c. Donation Contracts  54
d. Other types of contracts  54
i. Rental Contract  54
ii. Contract of Loan of an Object for Use and Contract of Loan of an Object for Consume  55
e. Contract of bailment  55
f. Contracts of guarantee  55
2. Contracts that are not regulated in the Code  55
a. Combined Contracts  55
b. Mixed Contracts  55
Bibliography  56
Chapter 2
TURKISH PROPERTY LAW
 Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER  59
I. Generally  59
A. Property right  59
II. Immovable Property  59
III. Real Rights (Rights in Rem)  60
A. Limited rights in rem  60
1. Servitudes  60
2. Real burdens  60
a. Lien  60
b. Mortgage  61
IV. Possession  61
V. Land Register  61
A. Generally  61
B. The role of registration in the transfer of title  61
1. Introduction  61
2. Relevant Turkish rules  62
3. The publicity principle and the registration principle  63
a. The Absolute Registration Principle (absolutes Eintragungsprinzip)  64
(1) Generally  64
(2) Nature and meaning of this principle  66
(3) The reason for the absolute registration principle  66
(4) Transfer of ownership of real estate through land registration
(the field of application of the absolute registration principle)  66
(a) Generally  66
(b) Elements of the transfer  67
b. The relative registration principle (relative Eintragungsprinzips)  74
4. Conclusion  74
Bibliography  76
Chapter 3
SELECTED CONTRACTS IN TURKISH LAW OF OBLIGATIONS
 Res. Asst. Hasanali AKAY Res. Asst. Murat UÇAK  79
SECTION I CONTRACT FOR WORK AND SERVICES  79
I. General  79
II. Definition  79
III. Obligations of the Contractor  80
A. Duty of Care  80
B. Duty of Loyalty  81
C. Obligation Regarding the Material  81
D. Commencement of the Work and Performance of the Work Related with the Contract  82
E. Liability for Defect  83
IV. Obligations of the Customer  84
A. Payment  84
1. Due Date for Payment  84
2. Lump Sum Price  84
3. Price Ad Valorem  85
V. Termination of the Contract  85
A. Exceeding the Approximate Price (Art. 482 CO)  85
B. Destruction of the Work (Art. 483 CO)  86
C. Withdrawal in Return for Indemnity (Art. 484 CO)  86
D. Impossibility of the Performance of the Work Because of the Customer
(Art. 485 CO)  86
E. DeathIncapacity of the Contractor (Art. 486 CO)  87
SECTION II GENERAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS  87
I. Definition  87
II. Elements of the Employment Contract  87
A. Obligation to Work  87
B. To Undertake the Performance of the Work for a LimitedUnlimited Period  88
C. Payment  88
D. Dependency Relation  88
E. Agreement  89
III. Obligations of the Employee  89
A. Duty to Assume the Tasks in Person  89
B. Compliance with General Directives and Instructions  90
C. Duty of Care  90
D. Duty of Loyalty  91
E. Disclosure and Handing Over of Benefits Received and of the Work Produced  92
F. Duty to Work Overtime  92
IV. Obligations of the Employer  92
A. Payment of Wages  92
B. Obligation to Provide Tools and Material  93
C. Obligation to Bear the Expenses  93
D. Obligation of the Employer Related to the Protection of the Employee’s Personality Rights  94
E. Obligation to Comply with the Employee’s Right to Holiday and Leave  95
V. Termination of the Employment Contract  95
A. Termination of the Fixed–Term Employment Contract  95
B. Termination of the Employment Contract with Indefinite Term  96
C. Rightful Termination of the Employment Contract  96
D. Termination of the Employment Contract Upon Death  97
SECTION III LEASE CONTRACT  97
I. Definition and Parties of the Lease  98
II. Term of the Lease  98
III. Obligations of the LandlordLessor  98
VI. Obligations of the LesseeTenant  100
V. Special Cases  100
VI. End of Lease  102
VII. Provisions Related to Commercial and Residential Premises  103
SECTION IV CONTRACT OF MANDATE  106
I. Definition and Scope of Application  106
II. Obligations of the Mandatary  108
III. Obligations of the Mandator  109
IV. Termination of the Mandate  109
Bibliography  110
Chapter 4
TURKISH INDIVIDUAL LABOUR LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Ömer UĞUR  111
SECTION I GENERAL  111
I. Basic Concepts of Individual Labour Law  111
A. Employee  111
B. Employer  112
C. Apprentice (Çırak)  113
D. Intern (Stajyer)  113
E. Contract of Employment (İş Sözleşmesi)  114
II. Scope of the Labour Code  114
A. Workswithin the Scope of the Labour Code  114
B. Worksoutside the Scope of the Labour Code  115
SECTION II TYPES OF CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT  117
I. General  117
II. Transitory and Permanent Contract of Employment  117
A. Transitory Contract of Employment (Süreksiz İş Sözleşmesi)  118
B. Permanent Contract of Employment (Sürekli İş Sözleşmesi)  118
C. Consequences of the Distinction between Transitory and Permanent Contract of Employment  118
III. Contract of Employment with Indefinite Term and Definite Term  118
A. Contract of Employment with an Indefinite Term (Belirsiz Süreli İş Sözleşmesi)  119
B. Contract of Employment with a Definite Term (Belirli Süreli İş Sözleşmesi)  119
1. Legal ments of the Contract of Employment with a Definite Term  119
IV. Part Time and Full Time Contract of Employment  120
V. Contract of Employment with Trial Period (Deneme Süreli İş Sözleşmesi)  121
SECTION III TERMINATION OF THE CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT  122
I. Situations Resulting in the Termination of the Contract of Employment  122
A. Mutual Rescission (İkale)  122
B. End of the Fixed Term  122
C. Death  123
II. Termination of the Contract of Employment upon Notice (İş Sözleşmesinin Bildirimli Feshi)  123
A. General  123
B. Termination Notice Periods (Fesih Bildirim Süreleri)  124
III. Termination of the Contract of Employment upon Notice that Contains a Valid Ground (İş Sözleşmesinin Geçerli Nedenle Feshi)  125
A. General  125
B. Valid Grounds for Termination  125
IV. Rightful Termination of the Contract of Employment (İş Sözleşmesinin Haklı Nedenle Feshi)  126
A. General  126
B. Termination of the Contract by Employees  127
1. Health issues  127
2. Situations that are against the moral rules and good faith  127
3. Act of providence  128
C. Termination of the Contract by Employers  128
1. Health issues  128
2. Situations that are against the moral rules and good faith  129
3. Act of providence  130
4. Absence due to an arrestdetention  130
V. Results of the Termination of the Contract of Employment  131
A. Severance Pay (Kıdem Tazminatı)  131
B. Pay in Lieu of Notice (İhbar Tazminatı)  132
C. Payment of Annual Paid Leave (Yıllık Ücretli İzin Ücreti)  132
D. Reemployment Lawsuit (İşe İade Davası)  133
SECTION IV LABOUR JUDICIARY  133
I. General  133
II. Competence and Venue  134
A. Competence (Görev)  134
B. Venue (Yetki)  134
III. Procedure  135
A. Mandatory Mediation (Zorunlu Arabuluculuk)  135
B. Trials (Yargılama)  135
Bibliography  137
Chapter 5
TURKISH COLLECTIVE LABOUR LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Muhammed İsmail ÇEKİÇ Res. Asst. Didem YALÇINTAŞ  139
SECTION I UNIONS  140
I. The Concept of Union and Its Structure  140
A. Definition and Features of Unions  140
B. Formation of Unions  141
C. Membership of Unions  142
D. Organs of Unions  143
II. Trade Union Freedom  144
A. Trade Union Freedom and Its Features  144
B. Protection of Trade Union Freedom  145
1. Safeguards Provided for Workers’ Organization Officials (İşçi Kuruluşu Yöneticiliğinin Güvencesi)  145
2. Protection of Shop Stewards (İşyeri Sendika Temsilciliğinin Güvencesi)  146
3. Safeguards Provided for Trade Union Membership  147
SECTION II COLLECTIVE LABOUR AGREEMENT  147
I. Definition and Properties of Collective Labour Agreements  147
II. Types of Collective Labour Agreements  148
A. Workplace Collective Labour Agreement  148
B. Group Collective Labour Agreement  149
C. Enterprise Collective Labour Agreement  149
D. Framework Agreement  149
III. Capacity and Competence to Conclude a Collective Labour Agreement  150
IV. Collective Bargaining Process (Toplu Görüşme Süreci)  151
A. Invitation to Collective Bargaining  151
B. Negotiations  152
V. Strikes, Lock–Outs and Their Exceptions  153
A. Decision to StrikeLock–out  153
B. Strike Ballot  154
C. Prohibition and Suspension of Strikes and Lock–Outs  155
D. Execution of Strikes and Lock–Outs  156
E. Effects of Lawful StrikesLock–Outs on Individual Employment Contracts  156
F. Consequences of an Unlawful StrikeLock–Out  157
G. Termination of Strikes and Lock–Outs  157
Bibliography  159
Chapter 6
TURKISH SOCIAL SECURITY LAW
Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Ebru KARABACAK  161
SECTION I INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SECURITY LAW  161
I. Concept of Social Insurance  161
II. Models Affecting Social Security Perception  162
A. The Bismarck Model  162
B. Beveridge Model  163
C. Private Insurance Model  163
III. Techniques Used For Social Insurance  163
IV. Attributes of Social Insurance  164
V. The Social Insurance Institution  164
VI. Financing of Social Security  165
SECTION II FIELD OF APPLICATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCES  168
I. Field of Application in Terms of Persons  168
A. Individuals Who Are Deemed to be Insured  168
1. Insurance of Individuals Working Dependently  168
2. Insurance of Independent Workers  171
3. Insurance of Public Servants  172
4. Insurance of Foreigners  173
B. Insurance Holders Who Are Deemed Partly Insured  174
C. Individuals Who Are Not Deemed to be Insurance Holders  177
II. Notification of the Beginning of Insurance  178
III.Determination of Insurance by Judicial Decision (Service Detection Actions)  181
IV. Overlap of Insurance Situations  182
V. Consolidation of Insurance Periods  183
VI. Voluntary Insurance  184
A. General  184
B. ments for Voluntary Insurance  185
C. Principles of Voluntary Insurance  186
D. Termination of Voluntary Insurance  186
VII. Scope of Application in Terms of Location  186
SECTION III TYPES OF SOCIAL INSURANCE  187
I. Work Accident and Occupational Disease Insurance  187
II. Illness Insurance  191
III. Maternity Insurance  191
IV. Invalidity Insurance  192
V. Old–Age Insurance  193
VI. Survivors’ Insurance  193
VII. Unemployment Insurance  194
VIII. General Health Insurance  195
SECTION IV RIGHT OF RECOURSE IN SOCIAL SECURITY LAW  195
SECTION V SERVICE OWING  197
I. Periods That Can Be Owed  198
A. Unpaid Maternity Leave Periods and Postnatal Periods  199
B. Military Service Period  200
C. Incomplete Periods of Those Who Work Under a Part–Time Employment Contract  200
II. Principles  201
III. Owing Services Abroad  201
SECTION VI SOCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SERVICES  202
I. Social Assistance  202
II. Social Services  203
III. Nongovernmental Organizations and Social Security  203
SECTION VII PRIVATE PENSION SYSTEM  204
Bibliography  206
Chapter 7
TURKISH LAW ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Asst. Prof. Dr. M. Halit KORKUSUZ  209
SECTION I TASKS OF THE STATE  209
I. Importance of Ensuring Occupational Health and Safety  209
II. Constitutional Basis of Occupational Health and Safety  209
III. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations  210
IV. National Council of Occupational Health and Safety  210
V. Insurance Premium Reinforcement System  210
VI. Inspection of Occupational Health and Safety  210
SECTION II EMPLOYERS’ DUTIES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE WORKSITE  211
I. Employers’ Duties  211
A. Duty to Take All Necessary Precautions  211
B. Duty to Supervise  211
C. Dutyof Training and Informing  211
D. Dutyto Perform Risk Assessment  212
E. Dutyto Perform Healthcare Supervision  212
F. Duty to Report Work Accident and Record Keeping  213
G. Other Duties  213
II. Organization of the Worksite about Occupational Health and Safety  213
A. Committee of Occupational Health and Safety (İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği Kurulu)  213
B. Occupational Safety Experts (İş Güvenliği Uzmanları)  214
C. Occupational Physicians (İşyeri Hekimleri)  214
D. Worksite Health and Safety Unit (İşyeri Sağlık ve Güvenlik Birimi) and Health and Safety Joint Unit (Ortak Sağlık ve Güvenlik Birimi)  215
SECTION III EMPLOYEES’ RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS  215
I. Employees’ Rights  215
A. Right to Abstain from Work  216
B. Right to Participate  217
C. Right to File a Complaint to Administrative Authorities (İhbar Hakkı)  217
D. Right to Terminate the Employment Contract with Valid Reason  218
II. Employees’ Duties  218
SECTION IV OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SANCTIONS  219
I. Administrative Sanctions  219
A. Administrative Fines  220
B. Suspension of the work  220
C. Disqualification from tendering  220
II. Penal Sanctions  220
III.Legal Sanctions  221
Bibliography  222
Chapter 8
TURKISH LAW OF COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE
 Res. Asst. Emin ÇAMURCU  223
SECTION I COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE  223
I. Elements of Commercial Enterprise  224
A. Aiming to Produce an Income Higher Than the Artisan Enterprise  224
B. Continuity  224
C. Independence  224
II. Contracts Related with Commercial Enterprises  225
SECTION II NOTIONS RELATED TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE  225
I. Merchant  225
A. Identifying a Merchant  226
1. Natural Persons  226
2. Legal Persons  226
B. Consequences of Being a Merchant  227
1. Bankruptcy  227
2. Role of Commercial Usage and Custom  227
3. Impossibility to Request Reduction of the FeeContractual Penalty  228
4. Right to Demand Payment of a Remuneration and Interest  228
II. Commercial Affair (Ticari İş)  228
A. Presumption of Commercial Affair  229
B. Consequences of Qualifying an Affair as Commercial Affair  230
1. Presumption of Joint Liability  230
2. Interest in Commercial Affairs  230
3. Statute of Limitation Periods in Commercial Affairs  231
III. Commercial Clauses  231
IV. Merchant Assistants  233
A. Commercial Representative (Ticari Temsilci)  233
B. Commercial Delegate (Ticari Vekil)  234
C. Agent (Acente)  235
Bibliography  238
Chapter 9
TURKISH COMPANY LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  239
SECTION I OVERVIEW OF COMPANY LAW IN TURKEY  239
I. General  239
II. Commercial Companies  240
SECTION II CAPITAL COMPANIES  241
I. Joint Stock Companies  241
A. General Assembly  242
B. Board of Directors  247
C. Shareholders’ Rights  250
1. Personal Rights of the Shareholders  250
a. Right of participation in the GM:  250
b. Right to vote:  250
c. Right to information and examination:  250
d. Right to request the appointment of special audit:  251
e. Right to request the nullity of GM resolutions:  252
2. Financial Rights of the Shareholders  252
D. Share Transfer  252
II. Limited Liability Companies  253
A. General Assembly  254
B. Directors  257
C. Share Transfer  258
Bibliography  259
Chapter 10
TURKISH LAW OF NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
 Res. Asst. Hasan Onur AKAY  261
SECTION I GENERAL  261
I. Definition and Legislation  261
II. Elements and Characteristics of Negotiable Instruments  262
A. Elements of Negotiable Instruments  262
B. Characteristics of Negotiable Instruments  263
III. Classification of Negotiable Instruments  263
A. Classification Based on the Right Embodied in the Instrument  264
1. Instruments Embodying a Monetary Claim (Alacak Senetleri)  264
2. Commodity Instruments (Emtia Senetleri)  264
3. Equity/Share Instruments (Pay Senetleri)  264
4. Instruments That Serve to Participate in Capital Companies (Ortaklığa Katılma Senetleri)  264
5. Combined Instruments (Karma Nitelikli Senetler)  265
B. Classification Based on the Transfer Procedure of the Instrument  265
1. Registered Negotiable Instruments (Nama Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  265
2. Negotiable Instruments Payable to Order (Emre Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  265
3. Negotiable Instruments Payable to Bearer (Hamile/Hamiline Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  266
SECTION II COMMERCIAL PAPERS  266
I. General  266
II. Bills of Exchange  267
A. Form of a Bill of Exchange  267
B. Transfer of Bills of Exchange  268
C. Acceptance (Kabul)  270
D. Recourse for Non–AcceptanceNon–Payment  271
E. Period of Limitation  271
III. Promissory Notes  271
A. General  271
B. Form of a Promissory Note  272
C. Period of Limitation  272
IV. Checks  273
A. General  273
B. Form of a Check  273
C. Period of Presentation  275
D. Transfer of Checks  276
E. Recourse for Non–AcceptanceNon–Payment  276
F. Period of Limitation  276
Bibliography  277
Chapter 11
TURKISH MARITIME LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hacı KARA  279
SECTION I SOURCES OF TURKISH MARITIME LAW AND THE STRUCTURE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION  279
I. Sources of Turkish Maritime Law  279
A. Turkish Commercial Code  279
B. International Conventions  280
C. Other National Legislation  281
II. The Structure Turkish Maritime Administration  282
SECTION II SHIP AND OWNERSHIP OF A SHIP  284
I. Definition and Legal Nature of a Ship  284
A. Definition  285
B. The Legal Nature of a Ship  286
C. Some Elements Determining the Identity of a Ship  286
1. Name of the Ship  286
2. Flag of the Ship  287
a. General  287
b. Vessels which have the right to hoist a Turkish flag  287
ba. Ships owned by real persons  287
bb. Ships owned by the association of ship owners  287
bba. Ships owned legal entities  288
bbb. Ships owned by commercial companies  288
c. Temporary hoisting of a foreign flag by Turkish vessels  288
d. Temporary hoisting of a Turkish flag by foreign vessels  288
3. Ship’s (Vessel’s) Home Port  289
4. Ship’s Tonnage  289
5. Ship’s Class  289
6. Ship Registry  290
a. National Ship Registry  290
aa. Ship Registry Directorate  290
ab. Scope of the Registry  291
aba. Ships which can lawfully be registered with the Ship Registry  291
abb. Ships which cannot be registered with the Ship Registry  291
b. Registry for Ships under Construction  291
c. Turkish International Ship Registry (TISR)  292
ca. ments to register in the TISR  292
cb. Financial Rules relating to TISR  293
cba. Dues regarding vessels registered with the TISR  293
cbb. Financial facilities provided to vessels registered with the TISR  293
d. Mooring Log  295
II. Ownership of a Vessel  295
A. Exercitor Navis (Donatan)  295
1. Cases Which Result in the Liability of the Owner  295
a. Owner’s Liability Arising from the Fault of the Crew Members  295
b. Owner’s Liability Arising from the Transactions Carried out by the Master  295
c. Limitation of the Master’s Liability  296
2. Owner’s Liability for Tortious Acts  296
3. Authorized Court for Actions to Be Filed Against the Owner  296
B. Ship Operator (Disponent Owner)  296
C. Partnership Operating a Ship (Joint Ownership)  296
III. Limited Real Rights on Ships  296
A. Ship Pledge  296
1. The Pledge of not Registered Ships in Ship Registry  296
2. Pledge of Ships Registered in the Registry  297
a. Legal Mortgage Right of Shipyard Owner  297
aa. Deion  297
ab. Scope  297
ac. Duration  297
b. Contractual Mortgage Right  297
B. Ship Mortgage  298
1. Legal Nature  298
3. Establishment  298
4. Types of Mortgage  298
a. Ship Mortgage Together  298
b. Upper Limit Mortgage  298
c. Foreign Currency Mortgage  298
d. Fixed Value Mortgage  299
e. Mortgage of Negotiable Instruments  299
f. Building Mortgage  299
5. The Secured Receivables by Ship Mortgage  299
6. Scope of Mortgage  300
7. Assignment and ment of Ship Mortgage  300
9. End of Ship Mortgage  300
a. Expiration of Receivable  300
b. Waiver to Claimant’s  300
c. Merger of the creditor and the ownerthe creditor and debtor adjectives in the same person  301
d. In the Mortgage of the Ship Together Payment of the Owner to the Creditor  301
e. Be Timebared of Right of the Creditor's Against the Ship Owner  301
f. Sale of the Ship through Execution  301
III. Mortgages on Ships in Construction  301
1. Subject of the Mortgage  301
2. Establisment of Mortgage  302
IV. Usufruct Right on Ships  302
SECTION III MASTER  302
I. General  302
II. Master’s Duties  303
III. Master’s Powers  304
A. To Represent the Owner  304
1. When the Ship is at the Home Port  304
2. Whilst the Ship is Outside the Home Port  304
B. Credit Transactions  305
C. Undertaking for Foreign Exchanges  305
D. LimitationsRemoval of the Master’s Power of Representation  305
E. Master’s Power to Represent the Persons Interested with the Cargo  305
1. Duty to Protect the Interests of the Persons Interested with the Cargo  305
2. Master’s Power to Dispose of the Goods  306
IV. Master’s Duties and Rights  306
A. Duties AgainstThird Parties  306
B. Duties Against the Owner  307
1. Duty to Give Information to the Owner  307
2. Duty to Hand Over the Freight and Other Sums to the Owner  307
3. Prohibition to Load Cargo on His Own Account  307
SECTION IV MARITIME TRADE CONTRACTS  307
I. Bareboat Charter Party  308
A. Definition and Its Elements  308
1. Definition  308
2. Elements of the Definition  308
B. Provisions of the Bareboat Charter  309
1. Rights of the Charterer  309
a. Right to use the ship  309
b. Right to request the registration of the charter in the ship registry  309
c. Right to request the delivery of the chartered vessel  309
2. Obligations of the Charterer  309
a. Obligation to pay the rent  309
b. Employment of the seamen  309
c. Reimbursement of the expenditures  310
d. Insurance  310
e. Claims arising from the operation of the ship  310
f. Re–delivery of the vessel  310
II. Time Charter Party  310
A. Definition and Its Elements  310
1. Definition  310
2. Legal Nature  311
3. Elements of the Definition  312
B. Rights and Obligations of the Parties  312
1. To undertake the technical management of the ship  312
2. Commercial management of the ship  312
3. To meet the outgoings  313
C. Obligation to pay a fee and its guarantee  313
D. Liability of the allocated party and his obligation to deliver the ship  313
III. Contract of Affreightment  313
A. Definition and Types of Affreightment Contracts  314
1. Definition  314
2. Types  314
a. Voyage Charter  314
aa. Full Charter  314
ab. Partial Charter  314
b. Contracts in Liner Shipping  314
B. Main Freight Contracts and Sub–Freight Contracts  315
C. Parties to the Affreightment Contract  315
1. Carrier  315
2. Charterer  315
D. Other Persons Interested with the Cargo  316
1. Shipper  316
2. Consignee (Receiver)  316
E. Execution of the Carriage and Its Phases  317
1. Loading  317
a. Loading Place  317
b. Loading Period  317
ba. Calculation of the Loading Period  317
bb. Cases which are not accepted as loading period  317
c. Demurrage Period  318
d. Loading Expenses  318
2. Discharge  318
a. Discharge Expenses  318
b. Discharge Period  319
c. Non–discharge of the cargo  319
F. Liability of the Carrier  320
1. Liability for the Irregularities Occurred at the Outset  320
2. Liability of the Carrier for Loss ofDamage to Cargofor Late Delivery  320
3. Special Situations  321
a. Loading the cargo to another ship and transhipment  321
b. Loading onto deck without permission  321
c. Unjust deviation  321
4. Duration for Which the Carrier is Liable  321
G. Carriage Documents  322
1. Bill of Lading (B/L)  322
2. Sea Waybill  322
H. Duration for Acceptance of Delay and the Loss of Goods  323
IV. Contract of Carriage of Passengers  323
A. Definitions  323
1. Contract of Carriage of Passengers by Sea  323
2. Carrier and Actual Carrier  323
3. Passenger  324
4. Baggage  324
5. Defects of the Ship  324
B. Time Bar  324
SECTION V MARINE ACCIDENTS  325
I. General Average  325
A. Definitions and Its Elements  325
1. Definition  325
2. Elements of General Average  326
B. Substitution Expenses  326
C. Dispatch  326
1. The person responsible for making the dispatch  327
2. Determination of the Dispatcher  327
3. Opposition to the dispatch  327
D. Debtors of the Dispatch Shares and Security  327
1. Debtors of the Dispatch Shares  327
2. Guarantee  327
E. Time Bar  328
II. Collision  328
A. Definition of Collision and Its Types  328
1. Definition  328
2. Types of Collision  328
a. Collision without fault  328
b. Collision by fault  328
ba. Collision by unilateral fault  328
bb. Collision by bilateral fault  329
c. Comparative Collision  329
B. Damages to Be Indemnified as a Result of Collision  329
1. Material Damages  329
2. Bodily Damages  330
C. Time Bar  330
III. Salvage  330
A. Definitions  331
1. Salvage Operation  331
2. Water Vehicle  331
3. Goods  331
B. Salvage Contract  331
1. Salvage Contract and its Scope  331
2. The Provisions Which Could Not Be Changed  332
C. Obligations of the Parties  332
1. Obligations of the Salvor  332
2. Obligations of the Ownerthe Master of the Ship Under Danger and the Cargo Owners  332
D. Salvage Fee  333
1. Scope of the Salvage Fee  333
2. Criteria for the Determination of the Salvage Fee  333
3. Persons Liable for Salvage Fee  334
E. Time Bar  334
SECTION VI MARITIME LIENS AND ENFORCEMENT  335
I. Maritime Liens  335
A. Notion of Maritime Lien  335
B. Claims Granting a Right of Maritime Lien  336
II. Maritime Enforcement  336
A. Maritime Claims  337
B. Taking Maritime Claims under Guarantee  338
1. Precautionary Attachment  338
2. Conditions Applicable to the Precautionary Attachment  339
C. Competent Court  339
1. About the precautionary attachment decision  339
a. Before filing a lawsuit  339
aa. For Turkish flag vessels  339
ab. For foreign flag vessels  340
b. After filing a lawsuit  340
2. About the Oppositions to the Lien  340
3. About the Enforcement  340
4. About the Indemnity Action filed due to Unjust Precautionary Attachment  341
D. The Claimant’s Guarantee  341
SECTION VII LIMITATION OF LIABILITY AND COMPENSATION OF LOSSES ARISING FROM OIL POLLUTION  342
I. Liability For Sea Pollution  342
II. Limitation of Liability  342
Bibliography  343
Chapter 12
TURKISH INSURANCE LAW
 Res. Asst. Sena YAZICI  347
SECTION I INTRODUCTION  347
SECTION II THE INSURANCE ACT (LAW NO. 5684)  348
I. Insurance and Reinsurance Companies (Sigorta ve Reasürans Şirketleri)  348
II. Intermediaries (Sigorta Aracıları)  349
III. Supervision  350
IV. Assurance Account (Güvence Hesabı)  350
V. Insurance Arbitration Scheme (Sigorta Tahkim Sistemi)  350
SECTION III INSURANCE CONTRACTS  352
I. General Provisions  352
A. Obligations and Duties of the Insurer  353
1. Obligation to carry the risk  353
2. Pre–contractual information duty  354
3. Obligation to issue and deliver policy  355
4. Obligation to pay expenses  355
5. Obligation to pay indemnity  355
B. Obligations and Duties of the Insured  356
1. Obligation to pay premium  356
2. Duty of disclosure  356
3. Duty to Provide Information and to Allow Investigation  357
4. Duty to Prevent LossIncrease in Loss  358
II. Special Provisions  358
A. Indemnity Insurances (Zarar Sigortaları)  359
1. Property Insurance (Mal Sigortası)  359
2. Liability Insurance (SorumlulukSigortası)  360
B. Personal Insurances (Can Sigortaları)  361
1. Life Insurance (Hayat Sigortası)  361
2. Accident Insurance (Kaza Sigortası)  362
3. Sickness Insurance and Health Insurance (Hastalık ve Sağlık Sigortası)  362
Bibliography  363
Chapter 13
TURKISH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW
 Asst. Prof. Dr. Özgür ARIKAN  365
SECTION 1 TRADE MARK LAW  366
I. Definition and Registrability of Trade Mark  367
II. Persons Who Are Entitled to Protection  368
III. Functions of Trade Mark  368
IV. Registration of Trade Mark  369
V. Absolute and Relative Grounds for Refusal  370
VI. Trade Mark Protection  373
VII. Duration of Trade Mark Registration  375
SECTION 2 PATENT LAW  375
I. Patentability  376
II. Registration, Grant and Ownership of Patent  377
III. Employee Inventions  378
IV. Duration  380
V. Protection of Patent  380
SECTION 3 DESIGN LAW  381
I. Definition and Registrability of Design  381
II. Protection of Design  382
III. Duration of Design Protection  383
IV. Right to the Design and Employee Designs  383
Bibliography  384
Chapter 14
TURKISH COMPETITION LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  385
I. GENERAL  385
A. Competition Authority  385
1. Competition Board  386
2. Legal Nature and Judicial Review of the Decisions of the Competition Board  387
B. Sources of Competition Law  387
C. Relationship Between Competition Law and Unfair Competition  387
II. AGREEMENTS, DECISIONS AND CONCERTED PRACTICES RESTRICTING COMPETITION  388
A. Agreements, Concerted Practices and Decisions of Associations of Undertakings  388
1. Agreement  389
2. Concerted Practice  390
3. Decision of an Association of Undertakings  391
a. Association of Undertakings  391
b. Decision of an Association of Undertakings  391
B. Examples of Anti–Competitive Agreements  392
C. Exemption  393
III. ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION  395
A. Dominant Position  395
B. Examples of Abuse of Dominant Position  396
IV. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS  397
A. Transactions Treated as Mergers and Acquisitions  397
1. Mergers  397
2. Acquisitions  398
3. Joint Ventures  400
a.Full–Function Joint Ventures  401
b.Non Full–Function Joint Ventures  401
B. Authorization System  402
V. PRIVATE ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION LAW  403
Bibliography  407
Chapter 15
TURKISH CIVIL PROCEDURE LAW
 Res. Asst. Dr. Elif Irmak BÜYÜK  411
I. General  411
II. Competence and Venue: Where to Commence an Action  412
A. Jurisdictional Branches and Court Organization  412
B. Competence and Venue  413
III. Lawsuit  415
A. General  415
B. Parties  416
C. Phases of a Lawsuit  417
1. Exchange of Petitions (Pleading) Phase (DilekçelerAşaması)  417
2. Preliminary Investigation Phase (Ön İnceleme Aşaması)  419
3. Investigation Phase (Tahkikat)  420
a. Evidence  420
4. Oral Hearings and Rendering of the Verdict (Sözlü Yargılama ve Hükmün Verilmesi)  422
IV. Interim Measures (Geçici Hukuki Korumalar)  423
V. Legal Avenues (Kanun Yolu)  424
A. General  424
B. Appeal Procedure in the CCP No 6100  426
C. Appeal Procedure in the –former– CCP No 1086  429
VI. Arbitration  430
A. General  430
B. Arbitration Agreement  431
1. General  431
2. Written Form  432
3. Subject  432
C. Effect of the Arbitration Agreement  432
D. Arbitration Procedure  432
1. Commencing of Arbitration  432
2. Term of Arbitration  433
3. Termination of the Arbitration Proceeding  433
E. Action for Annulment  434
VII. Mediation  435
A. General  435
B. Scope of the Law on Mediation in Civil Disputes  436
C. Basic Principles  436
1. Voluntary Participation and Equality  436
2. Confidentiality  437
3. Inability to Use Statements and Documents  437
D. Mediation Activity  437
E. Completion of Mediation  440
F. Enforceability  440
G. Mandatory Mediation in Turkish Law  441
Bibliography  443
Chapter 16
TURKISH EXECUTION LAW
 Nefise Gökçen GÜRCAN Res. Asst. Çağatay Serdar ŞAHİN  445
SECTION I GENERAL FEATURES OF EXECUTION LAW  445
I. Introduction  445
II. Scope of Application  446
III. Basic Concepts and Organization of Turkish Execution Law  447
A. Credit–Debt and Creditor–Debtor in the EBC  447
B. Executive Organization  447
1. Execution Offices (Art. 1 EBC) (İcra Daireleri)  448
2. Execution Courts (Art. 4 EBC) (İcra Mahkemeleri)  448
3. Relevant Chambers of the Supreme Court  449
IV. Complaint Procedure (Art. 16 – 18 EBC) (Şikâyet)  450
A. Legal Character and Function of the Complaint Procedure  450
B. Grounds for Complaint  451
1. Unlawfulness of the Actions of Execution Offices  451
2. Inappropriateness of the Act to the Circumstances  451
3. Failure to Implement a Right  452
4. Impediment of Observance of a Right Without a Cause  452
C. Procedure  452
1. Limitation Period  452
2. Competence and Venue  453
SECTION II TYPES AND STAGES OF EXECUTION PROCEEDINGS  453
I. Types of Execution Proceedings  453
A. General  453
B. General Attachment Procedure (Art. 46–144 EBC) (Genel Haciz Yoluyla Takip)  454
1. Request for Execution (Art. 58 EBC) (TakipTalebi)  455
2. Order of Payment (Art. 60–61 EBC) (ÖdemeEmri)  455
3. Attachment (Art. 78 et seq. EBC)  456
4. Sale of the Attached Goods (Art. 106–137 EBC)  457
5. Reimbursement of the Creditor (Art. 138–144/a EBC)  458
II. Provisional Attachment Procedure (İhtiyati Haciz)  458
A. General  458
B. Definition and Legal Character of Provisional Attachment  458
C. Conditions of Provisional Attachment  459
1. Provisional Attachment for Due Debts  459
2. Provisional Attachment for Deferred Debts  459
D. Procedure  460
Bibliography  462
Chapter 17
TURKISH BANKRUPTCY LAW
 Res. Asst. Mehmet Akif GÜL  463
SECTION I TURKISH BANKRUPTCY LAW  463
I. General  463
II. Bankruptcy Bodies  464
A. Official Bodies  464
1. Fundamental Official Bodies  465
a. Execution Office  465
b. Bankruptcy Office  465
c. Execution Court  465
d. Commercial Court of First Instance  466
e. Court of Appeal  466
2. Subsidiary Official Bodies  466
B. Non–Official Bodies  466
III. Grounds for Bankruptcy  466
SECTION II ACTION FOR RESCISSION OF DISPOSITION – ACTIO PAULIANA (TASARRUFUN İPTALİ DAVASI)  469
Bibliography  471
 


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İÇİNDEKİLER
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Chapter 1
TURKISH CIVIL LAW
 Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER Res. Asst. Yasin BÜYÜK Res. Asst. M. Hasanali AKAY Res. Asst. Melike ERGÜN  37
Chapter 2
TURKISH PROPERTY LAW
 Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER  59
Chapter 3
SELECTED CONTRACTS IN TURKISH LAW OF OBLIGATIONS
 Res. Asst. Hasanali AKAY Res. Asst. Murat UÇAK  79
Chapter 4
TURKISH INDIVIDUAL LABOUR LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Ömer UĞUR  111
Chapter 5
TURKISH COLLECTIVE LABOUR LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Muhammed İsmail ÇEKİÇ Res. Asst. Didem YALÇINTAŞ  139
Chapter 6
TURKISH SOCIAL SECURITY LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Ebru KARABACAK  161
Chapter 7
TURKISH LAW ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Asst. Prof. Dr. M. Halit KORKUSUZ  209
Chapter 8
TURKISH LAW OF COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE
 Res. Asst. Emin ÇAMURCU  223
Chapter 9
TURKISH COMPANY LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  239
Chapter 10
TURKISH LAW OF NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
 Res. Asst. Hasan Onur AKAY  261
Chapter 11
TURKISH MARITIME LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hacı KARA  279
Chapter 12
TURKISH INSURANCE LAW
 Res. Asst. Sena YAZICI  347
Chapter 13
TURKISH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW
 Asst. Prof. Dr. Özgür ARIKAN  365
Chapter 14
TURKISH COMPETITION LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  385
Chapter 15
TURKISH CIVIL PROCEDURE LAW
 Res. Asst. Dr. Elif Irmak BÜYÜK  411
Chapter 16
TURKISH EXECUTION LAW
 Nefise Gökçen GÜRCAN Res. Asst. Çağatay Serdar ŞAHİN  445
Chapter 17
TURKISH BANKRUPTCY LAW
 Res. Asst. Mehmet Akif GÜL  463
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD  5
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS  7
TABLE OF CONTENTS  11
Chapter 1
TURKISH CIVIL LAW
 Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER Res. Asst. Yasin BÜYÜK Res. Asst. M. Hasanali AKAY Res. Asst. Melike ERGÜN  37
I. History  37
II. Introduction  38
III. Law of Persons  38
A. Beginning and End of Personality:  39
B. Ability to be Subject of the Rights and Obligations:  39
C. Capacity to Act:  40
1. Full Capacity (Art. 9–13 TCC)  40
2. Full Incapacity (Art. 15 TCC)  41
3. Limited Capacity (Art. 16 TCC)  41
IV. Family Law  42
A. Engagement  42
B. Marriage  42
1. Formalities of Marriage  43
2. Marriage Impediments (Art. 129–133 TCC)  43
C. Divorce  44
V. Law of Succession  45
A. Forced Heirs  46
1. Wills and Testamentary Contracts  46
VI. Turkish Obligation Law – General Provisions  47
A. Contracts  47
1. Capacity to Contract  48
2. Formation of the Contract  48
3. Conditions of Validity  49
a. Immorality  49
b. Public Order  49
c. Imperative Rules  49
d. Personal Rights  50
e. Impossibility  50
4. Form of the Contract  50
5. Genuineness of Assent  51
a. Mistake  51
b. Fraud  52
c. Coercion  52
B. Torts  52
1. General  52
2. Conditions  52
3. Compensation  53
C. Unjust Enrichment  53
VII. Special Provisions  53
A. Classification of Contracts That Are Regulated By Special Provisions  54
1. Classification of contracts by their subject and purpose.  54
a. Sales Contracts  54
b. Barter  54
c. Donation Contracts  54
d. Other types of contracts  54
i. Rental Contract  54
ii. Contract of Loan of an Object for Use and Contract of Loan of an Object for Consume  55
e. Contract of bailment  55
f. Contracts of guarantee  55
2. Contracts that are not regulated in the Code  55
a. Combined Contracts  55
b. Mixed Contracts  55
Bibliography  56
Chapter 2
TURKISH PROPERTY LAW
 Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER  59
I. Generally  59
A. Property right  59
II. Immovable Property  59
III. Real Rights (Rights in Rem)  60
A. Limited rights in rem  60
1. Servitudes  60
2. Real burdens  60
a. Lien  60
b. Mortgage  61
IV. Possession  61
V. Land Register  61
A. Generally  61
B. The role of registration in the transfer of title  61
1. Introduction  61
2. Relevant Turkish rules  62
3. The publicity principle and the registration principle  63
a. The Absolute Registration Principle (absolutes Eintragungsprinzip)  64
(1) Generally  64
(2) Nature and meaning of this principle  66
(3) The reason for the absolute registration principle  66
(4) Transfer of ownership of real estate through land registration
(the field of application of the absolute registration principle)  66
(a) Generally  66
(b) Elements of the transfer  67
b. The relative registration principle (relative Eintragungsprinzips)  74
4. Conclusion  74
Bibliography  76
Chapter 3
SELECTED CONTRACTS IN TURKISH LAW OF OBLIGATIONS
 Res. Asst. Hasanali AKAY Res. Asst. Murat UÇAK  79
SECTION I CONTRACT FOR WORK AND SERVICES  79
I. General  79
II. Definition  79
III. Obligations of the Contractor  80
A. Duty of Care  80
B. Duty of Loyalty  81
C. Obligation Regarding the Material  81
D. Commencement of the Work and Performance of the Work Related with the Contract  82
E. Liability for Defect  83
IV. Obligations of the Customer  84
A. Payment  84
1. Due Date for Payment  84
2. Lump Sum Price  84
3. Price Ad Valorem  85
V. Termination of the Contract  85
A. Exceeding the Approximate Price (Art. 482 CO)  85
B. Destruction of the Work (Art. 483 CO)  86
C. Withdrawal in Return for Indemnity (Art. 484 CO)  86
D. Impossibility of the Performance of the Work Because of the Customer
(Art. 485 CO)  86
E. DeathIncapacity of the Contractor (Art. 486 CO)  87
SECTION II GENERAL EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS  87
I. Definition  87
II. Elements of the Employment Contract  87
A. Obligation to Work  87
B. To Undertake the Performance of the Work for a LimitedUnlimited Period  88
C. Payment  88
D. Dependency Relation  88
E. Agreement  89
III. Obligations of the Employee  89
A. Duty to Assume the Tasks in Person  89
B. Compliance with General Directives and Instructions  90
C. Duty of Care  90
D. Duty of Loyalty  91
E. Disclosure and Handing Over of Benefits Received and of the Work Produced  92
F. Duty to Work Overtime  92
IV. Obligations of the Employer  92
A. Payment of Wages  92
B. Obligation to Provide Tools and Material  93
C. Obligation to Bear the Expenses  93
D. Obligation of the Employer Related to the Protection of the Employee’s Personality Rights  94
E. Obligation to Comply with the Employee’s Right to Holiday and Leave  95
V. Termination of the Employment Contract  95
A. Termination of the Fixed–Term Employment Contract  95
B. Termination of the Employment Contract with Indefinite Term  96
C. Rightful Termination of the Employment Contract  96
D. Termination of the Employment Contract Upon Death  97
SECTION III LEASE CONTRACT  97
I. Definition and Parties of the Lease  98
II. Term of the Lease  98
III. Obligations of the LandlordLessor  98
VI. Obligations of the LesseeTenant  100
V. Special Cases  100
VI. End of Lease  102
VII. Provisions Related to Commercial and Residential Premises  103
SECTION IV CONTRACT OF MANDATE  106
I. Definition and Scope of Application  106
II. Obligations of the Mandatary  108
III. Obligations of the Mandator  109
IV. Termination of the Mandate  109
Bibliography  110
Chapter 4
TURKISH INDIVIDUAL LABOUR LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Ömer UĞUR  111
SECTION I GENERAL  111
I. Basic Concepts of Individual Labour Law  111
A. Employee  111
B. Employer  112
C. Apprentice (Çırak)  113
D. Intern (Stajyer)  113
E. Contract of Employment (İş Sözleşmesi)  114
II. Scope of the Labour Code  114
A. Workswithin the Scope of the Labour Code  114
B. Worksoutside the Scope of the Labour Code  115
SECTION II TYPES OF CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT  117
I. General  117
II. Transitory and Permanent Contract of Employment  117
A. Transitory Contract of Employment (Süreksiz İş Sözleşmesi)  118
B. Permanent Contract of Employment (Sürekli İş Sözleşmesi)  118
C. Consequences of the Distinction between Transitory and Permanent Contract of Employment  118
III. Contract of Employment with Indefinite Term and Definite Term  118
A. Contract of Employment with an Indefinite Term (Belirsiz Süreli İş Sözleşmesi)  119
B. Contract of Employment with a Definite Term (Belirli Süreli İş Sözleşmesi)  119
1. Legal ments of the Contract of Employment with a Definite Term  119
IV. Part Time and Full Time Contract of Employment  120
V. Contract of Employment with Trial Period (Deneme Süreli İş Sözleşmesi)  121
SECTION III TERMINATION OF THE CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT  122
I. Situations Resulting in the Termination of the Contract of Employment  122
A. Mutual Rescission (İkale)  122
B. End of the Fixed Term  122
C. Death  123
II. Termination of the Contract of Employment upon Notice (İş Sözleşmesinin Bildirimli Feshi)  123
A. General  123
B. Termination Notice Periods (Fesih Bildirim Süreleri)  124
III. Termination of the Contract of Employment upon Notice that Contains a Valid Ground (İş Sözleşmesinin Geçerli Nedenle Feshi)  125
A. General  125
B. Valid Grounds for Termination  125
IV. Rightful Termination of the Contract of Employment (İş Sözleşmesinin Haklı Nedenle Feshi)  126
A. General  126
B. Termination of the Contract by Employees  127
1. Health issues  127
2. Situations that are against the moral rules and good faith  127
3. Act of providence  128
C. Termination of the Contract by Employers  128
1. Health issues  128
2. Situations that are against the moral rules and good faith  129
3. Act of providence  130
4. Absence due to an arrestdetention  130
V. Results of the Termination of the Contract of Employment  131
A. Severance Pay (Kıdem Tazminatı)  131
B. Pay in Lieu of Notice (İhbar Tazminatı)  132
C. Payment of Annual Paid Leave (Yıllık Ücretli İzin Ücreti)  132
D. Reemployment Lawsuit (İşe İade Davası)  133
SECTION IV LABOUR JUDICIARY  133
I. General  133
II. Competence and Venue  134
A. Competence (Görev)  134
B. Venue (Yetki)  134
III. Procedure  135
A. Mandatory Mediation (Zorunlu Arabuluculuk)  135
B. Trials (Yargılama)  135
Bibliography  137
Chapter 5
TURKISH COLLECTIVE LABOUR LAW
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Muhammed İsmail ÇEKİÇ Res. Asst. Didem YALÇINTAŞ  139
SECTION I UNIONS  140
I. The Concept of Union and Its Structure  140
A. Definition and Features of Unions  140
B. Formation of Unions  141
C. Membership of Unions  142
D. Organs of Unions  143
II. Trade Union Freedom  144
A. Trade Union Freedom and Its Features  144
B. Protection of Trade Union Freedom  145
1. Safeguards Provided for Workers’ Organization Officials (İşçi Kuruluşu Yöneticiliğinin Güvencesi)  145
2. Protection of Shop Stewards (İşyeri Sendika Temsilciliğinin Güvencesi)  146
3. Safeguards Provided for Trade Union Membership  147
SECTION II COLLECTIVE LABOUR AGREEMENT  147
I. Definition and Properties of Collective Labour Agreements  147
II. Types of Collective Labour Agreements  148
A. Workplace Collective Labour Agreement  148
B. Group Collective Labour Agreement  149
C. Enterprise Collective Labour Agreement  149
D. Framework Agreement  149
III. Capacity and Competence to Conclude a Collective Labour Agreement  150
IV. Collective Bargaining Process (Toplu Görüşme Süreci)  151
A. Invitation to Collective Bargaining  151
B. Negotiations  152
V. Strikes, Lock–Outs and Their Exceptions  153
A. Decision to StrikeLock–out  153
B. Strike Ballot  154
C. Prohibition and Suspension of Strikes and Lock–Outs  155
D. Execution of Strikes and Lock–Outs  156
E. Effects of Lawful StrikesLock–Outs on Individual Employment Contracts  156
F. Consequences of an Unlawful StrikeLock–Out  157
G. Termination of Strikes and Lock–Outs  157
Bibliography  159
Chapter 6
TURKISH SOCIAL SECURITY LAW
Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Res. Asst. Ebru KARABACAK  161
SECTION I INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SECURITY LAW  161
I. Concept of Social Insurance  161
II. Models Affecting Social Security Perception  162
A. The Bismarck Model  162
B. Beveridge Model  163
C. Private Insurance Model  163
III. Techniques Used For Social Insurance  163
IV. Attributes of Social Insurance  164
V. The Social Insurance Institution  164
VI. Financing of Social Security  165
SECTION II FIELD OF APPLICATION OF SOCIAL INSURANCES  168
I. Field of Application in Terms of Persons  168
A. Individuals Who Are Deemed to be Insured  168
1. Insurance of Individuals Working Dependently  168
2. Insurance of Independent Workers  171
3. Insurance of Public Servants  172
4. Insurance of Foreigners  173
B. Insurance Holders Who Are Deemed Partly Insured  174
C. Individuals Who Are Not Deemed to be Insurance Holders  177
II. Notification of the Beginning of Insurance  178
III.Determination of Insurance by Judicial Decision (Service Detection Actions)  181
IV. Overlap of Insurance Situations  182
V. Consolidation of Insurance Periods  183
VI. Voluntary Insurance  184
A. General  184
B. ments for Voluntary Insurance  185
C. Principles of Voluntary Insurance  186
D. Termination of Voluntary Insurance  186
VII. Scope of Application in Terms of Location  186
SECTION III TYPES OF SOCIAL INSURANCE  187
I. Work Accident and Occupational Disease Insurance  187
II. Illness Insurance  191
III. Maternity Insurance  191
IV. Invalidity Insurance  192
V. Old–Age Insurance  193
VI. Survivors’ Insurance  193
VII. Unemployment Insurance  194
VIII. General Health Insurance  195
SECTION IV RIGHT OF RECOURSE IN SOCIAL SECURITY LAW  195
SECTION V SERVICE OWING  197
I. Periods That Can Be Owed  198
A. Unpaid Maternity Leave Periods and Postnatal Periods  199
B. Military Service Period  200
C. Incomplete Periods of Those Who Work Under a Part–Time Employment Contract  200
II. Principles  201
III. Owing Services Abroad  201
SECTION VI SOCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SERVICES  202
I. Social Assistance  202
II. Social Services  203
III. Nongovernmental Organizations and Social Security  203
SECTION VII PRIVATE PENSION SYSTEM  204
Bibliography  206
Chapter 7
TURKISH LAW ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
 Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ Asst. Prof. Dr. M. Halit KORKUSUZ  209
SECTION I TASKS OF THE STATE  209
I. Importance of Ensuring Occupational Health and Safety  209
II. Constitutional Basis of Occupational Health and Safety  209
III. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations  210
IV. National Council of Occupational Health and Safety  210
V. Insurance Premium Reinforcement System  210
VI. Inspection of Occupational Health and Safety  210
SECTION II EMPLOYERS’ DUTIES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE WORKSITE  211
I. Employers’ Duties  211
A. Duty to Take All Necessary Precautions  211
B. Duty to Supervise  211
C. Dutyof Training and Informing  211
D. Dutyto Perform Risk Assessment  212
E. Dutyto Perform Healthcare Supervision  212
F. Duty to Report Work Accident and Record Keeping  213
G. Other Duties  213
II. Organization of the Worksite about Occupational Health and Safety  213
A. Committee of Occupational Health and Safety (İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği Kurulu)  213
B. Occupational Safety Experts (İş Güvenliği Uzmanları)  214
C. Occupational Physicians (İşyeri Hekimleri)  214
D. Worksite Health and Safety Unit (İşyeri Sağlık ve Güvenlik Birimi) and Health and Safety Joint Unit (Ortak Sağlık ve Güvenlik Birimi)  215
SECTION III EMPLOYEES’ RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS  215
I. Employees’ Rights  215
A. Right to Abstain from Work  216
B. Right to Participate  217
C. Right to File a Complaint to Administrative Authorities (İhbar Hakkı)  217
D. Right to Terminate the Employment Contract with Valid Reason  218
II. Employees’ Duties  218
SECTION IV OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SANCTIONS  219
I. Administrative Sanctions  219
A. Administrative Fines  220
B. Suspension of the work  220
C. Disqualification from tendering  220
II. Penal Sanctions  220
III.Legal Sanctions  221
Bibliography  222
Chapter 8
TURKISH LAW OF COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE
 Res. Asst. Emin ÇAMURCU  223
SECTION I COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE  223
I. Elements of Commercial Enterprise  224
A. Aiming to Produce an Income Higher Than the Artisan Enterprise  224
B. Continuity  224
C. Independence  224
II. Contracts Related with Commercial Enterprises  225
SECTION II NOTIONS RELATED TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE  225
I. Merchant  225
A. Identifying a Merchant  226
1. Natural Persons  226
2. Legal Persons  226
B. Consequences of Being a Merchant  227
1. Bankruptcy  227
2. Role of Commercial Usage and Custom  227
3. Impossibility to Request Reduction of the FeeContractual Penalty  228
4. Right to Demand Payment of a Remuneration and Interest  228
II. Commercial Affair (Ticari İş)  228
A. Presumption of Commercial Affair  229
B. Consequences of Qualifying an Affair as Commercial Affair  230
1. Presumption of Joint Liability  230
2. Interest in Commercial Affairs  230
3. Statute of Limitation Periods in Commercial Affairs  231
III. Commercial Clauses  231
IV. Merchant Assistants  233
A. Commercial Representative (Ticari Temsilci)  233
B. Commercial Delegate (Ticari Vekil)  234
C. Agent (Acente)  235
Bibliography  238
Chapter 9
TURKISH COMPANY LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  239
SECTION I OVERVIEW OF COMPANY LAW IN TURKEY  239
I. General  239
II. Commercial Companies  240
SECTION II CAPITAL COMPANIES  241
I. Joint Stock Companies  241
A. General Assembly  242
B. Board of Directors  247
C. Shareholders’ Rights  250
1. Personal Rights of the Shareholders  250
a. Right of participation in the GM:  250
b. Right to vote:  250
c. Right to information and examination:  250
d. Right to request the appointment of special audit:  251
e. Right to request the nullity of GM resolutions:  252
2. Financial Rights of the Shareholders  252
D. Share Transfer  252
II. Limited Liability Companies  253
A. General Assembly  254
B. Directors  257
C. Share Transfer  258
Bibliography  259
Chapter 10
TURKISH LAW OF NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
 Res. Asst. Hasan Onur AKAY  261
SECTION I GENERAL  261
I. Definition and Legislation  261
II. Elements and Characteristics of Negotiable Instruments  262
A. Elements of Negotiable Instruments  262
B. Characteristics of Negotiable Instruments  263
III. Classification of Negotiable Instruments  263
A. Classification Based on the Right Embodied in the Instrument  264
1. Instruments Embodying a Monetary Claim (Alacak Senetleri)  264
2. Commodity Instruments (Emtia Senetleri)  264
3. Equity/Share Instruments (Pay Senetleri)  264
4. Instruments That Serve to Participate in Capital Companies (Ortaklığa Katılma Senetleri)  264
5. Combined Instruments (Karma Nitelikli Senetler)  265
B. Classification Based on the Transfer Procedure of the Instrument  265
1. Registered Negotiable Instruments (Nama Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  265
2. Negotiable Instruments Payable to Order (Emre Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  265
3. Negotiable Instruments Payable to Bearer (Hamile/Hamiline Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  266
SECTION II COMMERCIAL PAPERS  266
I. General  266
II. Bills of Exchange  267
A. Form of a Bill of Exchange  267
B. Transfer of Bills of Exchange  268
C. Acceptance (Kabul)  270
D. Recourse for Non–AcceptanceNon–Payment  271
E. Period of Limitation  271
III. Promissory Notes  271
A. General  271
B. Form of a Promissory Note  272
C. Period of Limitation  272
IV. Checks  273
A. General  273
B. Form of a Check  273
C. Period of Presentation  275
D. Transfer of Checks  276
E. Recourse for Non–AcceptanceNon–Payment  276
F. Period of Limitation  276
Bibliography  277
Chapter 11
TURKISH MARITIME LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hacı KARA  279
SECTION I SOURCES OF TURKISH MARITIME LAW AND THE STRUCTURE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION  279
I. Sources of Turkish Maritime Law  279
A. Turkish Commercial Code  279
B. International Conventions  280
C. Other National Legislation  281
II. The Structure Turkish Maritime Administration  282
SECTION II SHIP AND OWNERSHIP OF A SHIP  284
I. Definition and Legal Nature of a Ship  284
A. Definition  285
B. The Legal Nature of a Ship  286
C. Some Elements Determining the Identity of a Ship  286
1. Name of the Ship  286
2. Flag of the Ship  287
a. General  287
b. Vessels which have the right to hoist a Turkish flag  287
ba. Ships owned by real persons  287
bb. Ships owned by the association of ship owners  287
bba. Ships owned legal entities  288
bbb. Ships owned by commercial companies  288
c. Temporary hoisting of a foreign flag by Turkish vessels  288
d. Temporary hoisting of a Turkish flag by foreign vessels  288
3. Ship’s (Vessel’s) Home Port  289
4. Ship’s Tonnage  289
5. Ship’s Class  289
6. Ship Registry  290
a. National Ship Registry  290
aa. Ship Registry Directorate  290
ab. Scope of the Registry  291
aba. Ships which can lawfully be registered with the Ship Registry  291
abb. Ships which cannot be registered with the Ship Registry  291
b. Registry for Ships under Construction  291
c. Turkish International Ship Registry (TISR)  292
ca. ments to register in the TISR  292
cb. Financial Rules relating to TISR  293
cba. Dues regarding vessels registered with the TISR  293
cbb. Financial facilities provided to vessels registered with the TISR  293
d. Mooring Log  295
II. Ownership of a Vessel  295
A. Exercitor Navis (Donatan)  295
1. Cases Which Result in the Liability of the Owner  295
a. Owner’s Liability Arising from the Fault of the Crew Members  295
b. Owner’s Liability Arising from the Transactions Carried out by the Master  295
c. Limitation of the Master’s Liability  296
2. Owner’s Liability for Tortious Acts  296
3. Authorized Court for Actions to Be Filed Against the Owner  296
B. Ship Operator (Disponent Owner)  296
C. Partnership Operating a Ship (Joint Ownership)  296
III. Limited Real Rights on Ships  296
A. Ship Pledge  296
1. The Pledge of not Registered Ships in Ship Registry  296
2. Pledge of Ships Registered in the Registry  297
a. Legal Mortgage Right of Shipyard Owner  297
aa. Deion  297
ab. Scope  297
ac. Duration  297
b. Contractual Mortgage Right  297
B. Ship Mortgage  298
1. Legal Nature  298
3. Establishment  298
4. Types of Mortgage  298
a. Ship Mortgage Together  298
b. Upper Limit Mortgage  298
c. Foreign Currency Mortgage  298
d. Fixed Value Mortgage  299
e. Mortgage of Negotiable Instruments  299
f. Building Mortgage  299
5. The Secured Receivables by Ship Mortgage  299
6. Scope of Mortgage  300
7. Assignment and ment of Ship Mortgage  300
9. End of Ship Mortgage  300
a. Expiration of Receivable  300
b. Waiver to Claimant’s  300
c. Merger of the creditor and the ownerthe creditor and debtor adjectives in the same person  301
d. In the Mortgage of the Ship Together Payment of the Owner to the Creditor  301
e. Be Timebared of Right of the Creditor's Against the Ship Owner  301
f. Sale of the Ship through Execution  301
III. Mortgages on Ships in Construction  301
1. Subject of the Mortgage  301
2. Establisment of Mortgage  302
IV. Usufruct Right on Ships  302
SECTION III MASTER  302
I. General  302
II. Master’s Duties  303
III. Master’s Powers  304
A. To Represent the Owner  304
1. When the Ship is at the Home Port  304
2. Whilst the Ship is Outside the Home Port  304
B. Credit Transactions  305
C. Undertaking for Foreign Exchanges  305
D. LimitationsRemoval of the Master’s Power of Representation  305
E. Master’s Power to Represent the Persons Interested with the Cargo  305
1. Duty to Protect the Interests of the Persons Interested with the Cargo  305
2. Master’s Power to Dispose of the Goods  306
IV. Master’s Duties and Rights  306
A. Duties AgainstThird Parties  306
B. Duties Against the Owner  307
1. Duty to Give Information to the Owner  307
2. Duty to Hand Over the Freight and Other Sums to the Owner  307
3. Prohibition to Load Cargo on His Own Account  307
SECTION IV MARITIME TRADE CONTRACTS  307
I. Bareboat Charter Party  308
A. Definition and Its Elements  308
1. Definition  308
2. Elements of the Definition  308
B. Provisions of the Bareboat Charter  309
1. Rights of the Charterer  309
a. Right to use the ship  309
b. Right to request the registration of the charter in the ship registry  309
c. Right to request the delivery of the chartered vessel  309
2. Obligations of the Charterer  309
a. Obligation to pay the rent  309
b. Employment of the seamen  309
c. Reimbursement of the expenditures  310
d. Insurance  310
e. Claims arising from the operation of the ship  310
f. Re–delivery of the vessel  310
II. Time Charter Party  310
A. Definition and Its Elements  310
1. Definition  310
2. Legal Nature  311
3. Elements of the Definition  312
B. Rights and Obligations of the Parties  312
1. To undertake the technical management of the ship  312
2. Commercial management of the ship  312
3. To meet the outgoings  313
C. Obligation to pay a fee and its guarantee  313
D. Liability of the allocated party and his obligation to deliver the ship  313
III. Contract of Affreightment  313
A. Definition and Types of Affreightment Contracts  314
1. Definition  314
2. Types  314
a. Voyage Charter  314
aa. Full Charter  314
ab. Partial Charter  314
b. Contracts in Liner Shipping  314
B. Main Freight Contracts and Sub–Freight Contracts  315
C. Parties to the Affreightment Contract  315
1. Carrier  315
2. Charterer  315
D. Other Persons Interested with the Cargo  316
1. Shipper  316
2. Consignee (Receiver)  316
E. Execution of the Carriage and Its Phases  317
1. Loading  317
a. Loading Place  317
b. Loading Period  317
ba. Calculation of the Loading Period  317
bb. Cases which are not accepted as loading period  317
c. Demurrage Period  318
d. Loading Expenses  318
2. Discharge  318
a. Discharge Expenses  318
b. Discharge Period  319
c. Non–discharge of the cargo  319
F. Liability of the Carrier  320
1. Liability for the Irregularities Occurred at the Outset  320
2. Liability of the Carrier for Loss ofDamage to Cargofor Late Delivery  320
3. Special Situations  321
a. Loading the cargo to another ship and transhipment  321
b. Loading onto deck without permission  321
c. Unjust deviation  321
4. Duration for Which the Carrier is Liable  321
G. Carriage Documents  322
1. Bill of Lading (B/L)  322
2. Sea Waybill  322
H. Duration for Acceptance of Delay and the Loss of Goods  323
IV. Contract of Carriage of Passengers  323
A. Definitions  323
1. Contract of Carriage of Passengers by Sea  323
2. Carrier and Actual Carrier  323
3. Passenger  324
4. Baggage  324
5. Defects of the Ship  324
B. Time Bar  324
SECTION V MARINE ACCIDENTS  325
I. General Average  325
A. Definitions and Its Elements  325
1. Definition  325
2. Elements of General Average  326
B. Substitution Expenses  326
C. Dispatch  326
1. The person responsible for making the dispatch  327
2. Determination of the Dispatcher  327
3. Opposition to the dispatch  327
D. Debtors of the Dispatch Shares and Security  327
1. Debtors of the Dispatch Shares  327
2. Guarantee  327
E. Time Bar  328
II. Collision  328
A. Definition of Collision and Its Types  328
1. Definition  328
2. Types of Collision  328
a. Collision without fault  328
b. Collision by fault  328
ba. Collision by unilateral fault  328
bb. Collision by bilateral fault  329
c. Comparative Collision  329
B. Damages to Be Indemnified as a Result of Collision  329
1. Material Damages  329
2. Bodily Damages  330
C. Time Bar  330
III. Salvage  330
A. Definitions  331
1. Salvage Operation  331
2. Water Vehicle  331
3. Goods  331
B. Salvage Contract  331
1. Salvage Contract and its Scope  331
2. The Provisions Which Could Not Be Changed  332
C. Obligations of the Parties  332
1. Obligations of the Salvor  332
2. Obligations of the Ownerthe Master of the Ship Under Danger and the Cargo Owners  332
D. Salvage Fee  333
1. Scope of the Salvage Fee  333
2. Criteria for the Determination of the Salvage Fee  333
3. Persons Liable for Salvage Fee  334
E. Time Bar  334
SECTION VI MARITIME LIENS AND ENFORCEMENT  335
I. Maritime Liens  335
A. Notion of Maritime Lien  335
B. Claims Granting a Right of Maritime Lien  336
II. Maritime Enforcement  336
A. Maritime Claims  337
B. Taking Maritime Claims under Guarantee  338
1. Precautionary Attachment  338
2. Conditions Applicable to the Precautionary Attachment  339
C. Competent Court  339
1. About the precautionary attachment decision  339
a. Before filing a lawsuit  339
aa. For Turkish flag vessels  339
ab. For foreign flag vessels  340
b. After filing a lawsuit  340
2. About the Oppositions to the Lien  340
3. About the Enforcement  340
4. About the Indemnity Action filed due to Unjust Precautionary Attachment  341
D. The Claimant’s Guarantee  341
SECTION VII LIMITATION OF LIABILITY AND COMPENSATION OF LOSSES ARISING FROM OIL POLLUTION  342
I. Liability For Sea Pollution  342
II. Limitation of Liability  342
Bibliography  343
Chapter 12
TURKISH INSURANCE LAW
 Res. Asst. Sena YAZICI  347
SECTION I INTRODUCTION  347
SECTION II THE INSURANCE ACT (LAW NO. 5684)  348
I. Insurance and Reinsurance Companies (Sigorta ve Reasürans Şirketleri)  348
II. Intermediaries (Sigorta Aracıları)  349
III. Supervision  350
IV. Assurance Account (Güvence Hesabı)  350
V. Insurance Arbitration Scheme (Sigorta Tahkim Sistemi)  350
SECTION III INSURANCE CONTRACTS  352
I. General Provisions  352
A. Obligations and Duties of the Insurer  353
1. Obligation to carry the risk  353
2. Pre–contractual information duty  354
3. Obligation to issue and deliver policy  355
4. Obligation to pay expenses  355
5. Obligation to pay indemnity  355
B. Obligations and Duties of the Insured  356
1. Obligation to pay premium  356
2. Duty of disclosure  356
3. Duty to Provide Information and to Allow Investigation  357
4. Duty to Prevent LossIncrease in Loss  358
II. Special Provisions  358
A. Indemnity Insurances (Zarar Sigortaları)  359
1. Property Insurance (Mal Sigortası)  359
2. Liability Insurance (SorumlulukSigortası)  360
B. Personal Insurances (Can Sigortaları)  361
1. Life Insurance (Hayat Sigortası)  361
2. Accident Insurance (Kaza Sigortası)  362
3. Sickness Insurance and Health Insurance (Hastalık ve Sağlık Sigortası)  362
Bibliography  363
Chapter 13
TURKISH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW
 Asst. Prof. Dr. Özgür ARIKAN  365
SECTION 1 TRADE MARK LAW  366
I. Definition and Registrability of Trade Mark  367
II. Persons Who Are Entitled to Protection  368
III. Functions of Trade Mark  368
IV. Registration of Trade Mark  369
V. Absolute and Relative Grounds for Refusal  370
VI. Trade Mark Protection  373
VII. Duration of Trade Mark Registration  375
SECTION 2 PATENT LAW  375
I. Patentability  376
II. Registration, Grant and Ownership of Patent  377
III. Employee Inventions  378
IV. Duration  380
V. Protection of Patent  380
SECTION 3 DESIGN LAW  381
I. Definition and Registrability of Design  381
II. Protection of Design  382
III. Duration of Design Protection  383
IV. Right to the Design and Employee Designs  383
Bibliography  384
Chapter 14
TURKISH COMPETITION LAW
 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  385
I. GENERAL  385
A. Competition Authority  385
1. Competition Board  386
2. Legal Nature and Judicial Review of the Decisions of the Competition Board  387
B. Sources of Competition Law  387
C. Relationship Between Competition Law and Unfair Competition  387
II. AGREEMENTS, DECISIONS AND CONCERTED PRACTICES RESTRICTING COMPETITION  388
A. Agreements, Concerted Practices and Decisions of Associations of Undertakings  388
1. Agreement  389
2. Concerted Practice  390
3. Decision of an Association of Undertakings  391
a. Association of Undertakings  391
b. Decision of an Association of Undertakings  391
B. Examples of Anti–Competitive Agreements  392
C. Exemption  393
III. ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION  395
A. Dominant Position  395
B. Examples of Abuse of Dominant Position  396
IV. MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS  397
A. Transactions Treated as Mergers and Acquisitions  397
1. Mergers  397
2. Acquisitions  398
3. Joint Ventures  400
a.Full–Function Joint Ventures  401
b.Non Full–Function Joint Ventures  401
B. Authorization System  402
V. PRIVATE ENFORCEMENT OF COMPETITION LAW  403
Bibliography  407
Chapter 15
TURKISH CIVIL PROCEDURE LAW
 Res. Asst. Dr. Elif Irmak BÜYÜK  411
I. General  411
II. Competence and Venue: Where to Commence an Action  412
A. Jurisdictional Branches and Court Organization  412
B. Competence and Venue  413
III. Lawsuit  415
A. General  415
B. Parties  416
C. Phases of a Lawsuit  417
1. Exchange of Petitions (Pleading) Phase (DilekçelerAşaması)  417
2. Preliminary Investigation Phase (Ön İnceleme Aşaması)  419
3. Investigation Phase (Tahkikat)  420
a. Evidence  420
4. Oral Hearings and Rendering of the Verdict (Sözlü Yargılama ve Hükmün Verilmesi)  422
IV. Interim Measures (Geçici Hukuki Korumalar)  423
V. Legal Avenues (Kanun Yolu)  424
A. General  424
B. Appeal Procedure in the CCP No 6100  426
C. Appeal Procedure in the –former– CCP No 1086  429
VI. Arbitration  430
A. General  430
B. Arbitration Agreement  431
1. General  431
2. Written Form  432
3. Subject  432
C. Effect of the Arbitration Agreement  432
D. Arbitration Procedure  432
1. Commencing of Arbitration  432
2. Term of Arbitration  433
3. Termination of the Arbitration Proceeding  433
E. Action for Annulment  434
VII. Mediation  435
A. General  435
B. Scope of the Law on Mediation in Civil Disputes  436
C. Basic Principles  436
1. Voluntary Participation and Equality  436
2. Confidentiality  437
3. Inability to Use Statements and Documents  437
D. Mediation Activity  437
E. Completion of Mediation  440
F. Enforceability  440
G. Mandatory Mediation in Turkish Law  441
Bibliography  443
Chapter 16
TURKISH EXECUTION LAW
 Nefise Gökçen GÜRCAN Res. Asst. Çağatay Serdar ŞAHİN  445
SECTION I GENERAL FEATURES OF EXECUTION LAW  445
I. Introduction  445
II. Scope of Application  446
III. Basic Concepts and Organization of Turkish Execution Law  447
A. Credit–Debt and Creditor–Debtor in the EBC  447
B. Executive Organization  447
1. Execution Offices (Art. 1 EBC) (İcra Daireleri)  448
2. Execution Courts (Art. 4 EBC) (İcra Mahkemeleri)  448
3. Relevant Chambers of the Supreme Court  449
IV. Complaint Procedure (Art. 16 – 18 EBC) (Şikâyet)  450
A. Legal Character and Function of the Complaint Procedure  450
B. Grounds for Complaint  451
1. Unlawfulness of the Actions of Execution Offices  451
2. Inappropriateness of the Act to the Circumstances  451
3. Failure to Implement a Right  452
4. Impediment of Observance of a Right Without a Cause  452
C. Procedure  452
1. Limitation Period  452
2. Competence and Venue  453
SECTION II TYPES AND STAGES OF EXECUTION PROCEEDINGS  453
I. Types of Execution Proceedings  453
A. General  453
B. General Attachment Procedure (Art. 46–144 EBC) (Genel Haciz Yoluyla Takip)  454
1. Request for Execution (Art. 58 EBC) (TakipTalebi)  455
2. Order of Payment (Art. 60–61 EBC) (ÖdemeEmri)  455
3. Attachment (Art. 78 et seq. EBC)  456
4. Sale of the Attached Goods (Art. 106–137 EBC)  457
5. Reimbursement of the Creditor (Art. 138–144/a EBC)  458
II. Provisional Attachment Procedure (İhtiyati Haciz)  458
A. General  458
B. Definition and Legal Character of Provisional Attachment  458
C. Conditions of Provisional Attachment  459
1. Provisional Attachment for Due Debts  459
2. Provisional Attachment for Deferred Debts  459
D. Procedure  460
Bibliography  462
Chapter 17
TURKISH BANKRUPTCY LAW
 Res. Asst. Mehmet Akif GÜL  463
SECTION I TURKISH BANKRUPTCY LAW  463
I. General  463
II. Bankruptcy Bodies  464
A. Official Bodies  464
1. Fundamental Official Bodies  465
a. Execution Office  465
b. Bankruptcy Office  465
c. Execution Court  465
d. Commercial Court of First Instance  466
e. Court of Appeal  466
2. Subsidiary Official Bodies  466
B. Non–Official Bodies  466
III. Grounds for Bankruptcy  466
SECTION II ACTION FOR RESCISSION OF DISPOSITION – ACTIO PAULIANA (TASARRUFUN İPTALİ DAVASI)  469
Bibliography  471
 


 
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