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Introduction to Turkish Law
Kasım 2016 / 1. Baskı / 424 Syf.
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Turkish law has undergone drastic changes over the last 15 years. Indeed, new laws have been enacted and several laws have been amended to modernize and bring Turkish legislation in line with the EU acquis communautaire. For this reason, this book aims to provide an overview of the current Turkish public and private law. It aspires to serve as a blueprint not only for foreign students and academics, but also for international law firms and organizations. Great care has been given to incorporate the most recent legislation, Supreme Court decisions, and statistical information.

This book is divided into two main parts. Part 1, entitled "Public Law", includes nine chapters and covers Fundamental Elements of Turkish Constitutional Law, Human Rights Protection from the Perspective of the 1982 Constitution, Administrative Law, Administrative Jurisdiction, Criminal and Criminal Procedure Law, Tax Law, Public International Law, Turkish Legal History and Philosophy and Sociology of Law.

Part 2, entitled "Private Law", includes fifteen chapters and deals with Civil Law, Individual Labour Law, Collective Labour Law, Social Securitv Law, Law on Occupational Health and Safety, Law of Commercial Enterprise, Company Law, Law of Negotiable Instruments, Maritime Law, Insurance Law, Intellectual Property Law, Civil Procedure Law, Execution Law, Bankruptcy and Insolvency Law and Private International Law.

Konu Başlıkları
Fundamental Elements Of Turkish Constitutional Law, Res. Asst. Feyzan Özbay, Res. Asst. Sezen Kama
Human Rights Protection From The Perspective Of The 1982 Constitution, Asst. Prof. Dr. Murat Tümay, Res. Asst. Feyzan Özbay, Res. Asst. Sezen Kama
Turkish Administrative Law, Res. Asst. Dr. Halil Altındağ, Res. Asst. Ömer Faruk Erol, Res. Asst. Emre Kılıç
Turkish Administrative Jurisdiction, Res. Asst. Dr. Halil Altındağ, Res. Asst. İ. Esra Dülger Sucu, Res. Asst. Kasım Ocak
Turkish Criminal Law And Criminal Procedure Law, Prof. Dr. Dr. H.C. Hakan Hakeri
Turkish Tax Law, Res. Asst. Emine Sevcan Artun, Res. Asst. Ahmet Emrah Geçer, Res. Asst. Arzu Kalyon
Public International Law, Asst. Prof. Dr. Tülay Yıldırım Res. Asst. Miray Azaklı Köse
Turkish Legal History, Asst. Prof. Dr. Saliha Okur Gümrükçüoğlu
Turkish Philosophy Of Law And Sociology Of Law, Res. Asst. Ercan Er
Turkish Civil Law, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ümit Gezder, Res. Asst. Yasin Büyük, Res. Asst. M. Hasanali Akay, Res. Asst. Melike Ergün
Turkish Individual Labour Law, Prof. Dr. M. Refik Korkusuz, Res. Asst. Ömer Uğur
Turkish Collective Labour Law, Prof. Dr. M. Refik Korkusuz, Res. Asst. Muhammed İsmail Çekiç
Turkish Social Security Law, Prof. Dr. M. Refik Korkusuz, Res. Asst. Ebru Karabacak
Turkish Law On Occupational Health And Safety, Prof. Dr. M. Refik Korkusuz, Asst. Prof. Dr. M. Halit Korkusuz
Law Of Commercial Enterprise, Res. Asst. Emin Çamurcu
Turkish Company Law, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İpekel Kayalı
Turkish Law Of Negotiable Instruments, Res. Asst. Hasan Onur Akay
Turkish Maritime Law, Asst. Prof. Dr. Hacı Kara
Turkish Insurance Law, Assoc. Prof. Dr. M. Barış Günay
Turkish Intellectual Property Law, Res. Asst. Dr. Özgür Arıkan
Turkish Civil Procedure Law, Res. Asst. Elif Irmak Kılıç
Turkish Execution Law, Res. Asst. Nefise Gökçen Gürcan
Turkish Bankruptcy And Insolvency Law, Res. Asst. Mehmet Akif Gül
Turkish Private International Law, Res. Asst. Kazım Çınar
Barkod: 9789750240188
Yayın Tarihi: Kasım 2016
Baskı Sayısı:  1
Ebat: 16x24
Sayfa Sayısı: 424
Yayınevi: Seçkin Yayıncılık
Kapak Türü: Karton Kapaklı
Dili: Türkçe
Ekler: -

 

İÇİNDEKİLER
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD  5
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS  7
TABLE OF CONTENTS  11
PUBLIC LAW
CHAPTER 1:
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF TURKISH CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
Res. Asst. Feyzan ÖZBAY, Res. Asst. Sezen KAMA  35
INTRODUCTION  35
SECTION I: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE TURKISH CONSTITUTIONALIST MOVEMENT  36
SECTION II: THE LEGISLATURE  39
I. The Composition of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey  39
A. Eligibility Criteria d to Become a Deputy  40
B. Parliamentary Privileges  41
II. Functions and Powers of the GNAT  42
A. Enacting Laws  43
B. Parliamentary Oversight  43
SECTION III THE EXECUTIVE  45
I. Elements of the Executive  45
A. President  45
B. The Prime Minister (PM)  46
C. The Council of Ministers (The CoM)  47
II. Legal Status  48
A. Privileges and Immunities  48
B. Ministerial Responsibility  48
1. Political Responsibility  49
2. Criminal Responsibility  49
3. Legal Responsibility  49
SECTION IV THE JUDICIARY  50
I. Organization of the Judiciary  50
A. Judicial (Civil and Criminal) Courts  50
B. Administrative and Tax Courts  51
C. Military Courts  52
D. The Constitutional Court  52
E. The Court of Accounts  53
II. Judicial Independence  54
A. Independence of Judges  54
B. Tenure of Judges  54
C. Principle of Natural Judge  55
BIBLIOGRAPHY  56
CHAPTER 2
HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE 1982 CONSTITUTION
Asst. Prof. Dr. Murat TÜMAY, Res. Asst. Feyzan ÖZBAY, Res. Asst. Sezen KAMA  57
I. General Constitutional Framework  57
II. Limitations to Fundamental Rights  59
II. Derogations to Human Rights  60
III. Individual Application to the Constitutional Court  61
BIBLIOGRAPHY  64
CHAPTER 3
TURKISH ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
Res. Asst. Dr. Halil ALTINDAĞ, Res. Asst. Ömer Faruk EROL,
Res. Asst. Emre KILIÇ  65
I. Turkish Administrative Organization  65
A. Central Administration  66
1. President of the Republic  66
a. Election  66
b. Duties and Powers  67
2. Council of Ministers  68
B. Decentralization  68
1. Territorial Decentralization (Local Administrations)  68
a. Special Provincial Administration (İl Özel İdaresi)  69
aa. General Provincial Council (İl Genel Meclisi)  70
ab. Provincial Executive Committee (İl Encümeni)  70
ac. Governor (Vali)  70
b. Municipality (Belediye)  70
ba. Municipal Council (Belediye Meclisi)  71
bb. Municipal Executive Committee (Belediye Encümeni)  71
bc. The Mayor (Belediye Başkanı)  72
c. Metropolitan Municipality (Büyükşehir Belediyesi)  72
d. Village Administration (Köy İdaresi)  73
2. Decentralization Based on Services  74
a. Institutions of Higher Education (Yüksek Öğretim Kurumları)  74
b. Regulatory and Supervision Agencies (Düzenleyici ve Denetleyici Kurumlar)  74
c. Professional Organizations Having the Characteristics of Public Institution (Kamu Kurumu Niteliğindeki Meslek Kuruluşları)  74
d. Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı)  75
II. Activities of Administration  75
A. Public Services  75
B. Administrative Police  76
III. Powers of Administration  77
A. Administrative Acts  77
1. Administrative Regulations  78
2. Individual Administrative Acts  78
B. Administrative Contracts  78
C. Administrative Actions  79
D. Law on Public Procurement  79
1. Basic Legislation on Public Procurement  80
2. Procurement Procedures  81
a. The Law No 2886  81
b. The Law No 4734  82
3. Objection to Procurement  82
a. Complaint Application to the Contracting Authority (Şikayet)  83
b. Appeal Application to the Public Procurement Authority (İtirazen Şikayet)  83
E. Administrative Sanctions  83
1. Definition of Administrative Sanction and Primary Legislation  83
2. Basic Principles Regarding Administrative Sanctions  84
3. Judicial Review of Administrative Sanctions  84
BIBLIOGRAPHY  86
CHAPTER 4
TURKISH ADMINISTRATIVE JURISDICTION
Res. Asst. Dr. Halil ALTINDAĞ, Res. Asst. İ. Esra Dülger SUCU,
Res. Asst. Kasım OCAK  87
I. General  87
II. Organization of Administrative Jurisdiction  87
A. Council of State  88
B. High Military Administrative Court  89
C. Regional Administrative Courts  89
D. Administrative Courts  89
E. Tax Courts  89
III. Administrative Litigation  90
A. Action for Annulment  90
B. Action of Full Jurisdiction  91
IV. Suspension of Execution  92
V. Time Limit to Bring a Case  92
BIBLIOGRAPHY  94
CHAPTER 5
TURKISH CRIMINAL LAW AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Hakan HAKERİ  95
I. INTRODUCTION  95
II. GENERAL PART OF THE PENAL CODE  96
III. SPECIAL PART OF THE PENAL CODE (CRIMES)  100
IV. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW  103
BIBLIOGRAPHY  108
CHAPTER 6
TURKISH TAX LAW
Res. Asst. Emine Sevcan ARTUN, Res. Asst. Ahmet Emrah GEÇER,
Res. Asst. Arzu KALYON  109
SECTION I GENERAL TAX LAW  109
I. DEFINITIONS AND SOURCES OF THE TAX LAW  109
A. Definition of Tax Law  109
B. Sources of Tax Law  109
1. Binding Sources of Tax Law  110
a. The Constitution  110
b. Tax Codes  111
c. International Tax Treaties  111
d. Statutory Decrees  111
e. Other Binding Sources  111
2. Non–binding Sources of Tax Law  112
II. TAXATION PROCESS  112
A. Taxable Event  113
B. Assessment of Tax  113
1. Complementary Tax Assessment  114
2. Ex– Officio Tax Assessment  114
3. Tax Assessment by the Administration  114
C. Notification of Tax  114
D. Accrual of Tax  115
E. Collection of Tax  115
III. TAX OFFENCES  115
A. General  115
B. Tax Misdemeanors  116
1. Irregularity Misdemeanors  116
2. Tax Loss Misdemeanors  117
C. Tax Crimes  117
1. Tax Evasion  117
2. Breach of Tax Secrecy  117
3. Conducting Personal Affairs of Taxpayers  118
IV. TAX PROCEDURE LAW  118
A. General  118
B. Tax–Related Courts  119
1. Tax Courts  120
2. Regional Administrative Courts  120
3. The Council of State  120
C. Tax Trial Procedure  121
V. TAX ENFORCEMENT LAW  123
A. General  123
B. Compulsory Execution Proceeding  123
C. Measures of Conservation  124
1. Pre–emptive Right  124
2. Request for a Guarantee  124
3. Precautionary Accrual (İhtiyati Tahakkuk)  125
4. Precautionary Attachment (İhtiyati Haciz)  125
5. Nullity Proceedings  126
VI. INTERNATIONAL TAX LAW  126
A. General  126
B. States’ Jurisdiction to Tax  127
C. Legal Nature of International Tax Treaties in Turkish Law  127
D. The Notion of Double Taxation  128
E. The Issue of Double Non–Taxation: Tax Evasion and Tax Avoidance  129
SECTION II TURKISH TAXATION SYSTEM  130
I. DIRECT TAXATION  130
A. Income Tax for Real Persons  130
B. Corporate Tax  131
1. Thin Capitalization  131
2. Transfer Pricing  132
II. Indirect Taxation  132
A. Value Added Tax  132
B. Stamp Tax  133
C. Motor Vehicles Tax  134
D. Banking and Insurance Transaction Tax (BITT)  134
E. Gambling Tax  134
F. Inheritance and Gift Tax  134
G. Property Tax  135
H. Special Communication Tax  135
İ. Customs Tax  135
J. Fees  135
K. Special Consumption Tax  135
BIBLIOGRAPHY  136
CHAPTER 7
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
Asst. Prof. Dr. Tülay YILDIRIM, Res. Asst. Miray AZAKLI KÖSE  137
SECTION I USE OF FORCE BY STATES  137
I. The Prohibition on the Use of Force  137
II. The Right of Self–Defense  139
III. The Scope of Self–Defense  140
IV. AnticipatoryPre–Emptive Self–Defense  141
V. Collective Self–Defense  142
VI. Humanitarian Intervention  143
VII. The Responsibility to Protect  144
VIII. The Use of Force Under Chapter VII of the Charter  145
SECTION II INTERNATIONAL LAW OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY  147
I. The Source of Responsibility: The Internationally Wrongful Act of A State  148
A. Attribution of Conduct to A State  148
B. Breach of an International Obligation  149
C. Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness  149
1. Consent  150
2. Self–Defense  150
3. Countermeasures  150
4. Force–majeure and Distress  151
5. Necessity  151
II. Consequences of an Internationally Wrongful Act  152
A. Restitution  152
B. Compensation  153
C. Satisfaction  153
III. Serious Breaches of Obligations Under Peremptory Norms  153
BIBLIOGRAPHY  154
CHAPTER 8
TURKISH LEGAL HISTORY
Asst. Prof. Dr. Saliha Okur GÜMRÜKÇÜOĞLU  155
I. General  155
II. Historical Development of Turkish Law  155
A. Turkish Law before Islam  155
B. Turkish Law after Islam  156
1. Islamic Law  156
2. Legal Schools in Islamic Law  157
3. Ottoman Law  157
a. The Ottoman Judicial System  158
b. The Ottoman Judical System after Tanzimat  159
BIBLIOGRAPHY  160
CHAPTER 9
TURKISH PHILOSOPHY OF LAW AND SOCIOLOGY OF LAW
Res. Asst. Ercan ER  161
SECTION I NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHY OF LAW  161
I. Nature of Philosophy of Law  161
II. Importance of Philosophy of Law  162
A. Theoretical Importance of Philosophy of Law  162
B. Practical Importance of Philosophy of Law  163
SECTION II MAIN IDEOLOGIES WHICH DETERMINE THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS OF PHILOSOPHY OF LAW  164
I. Theories Embodied by Moral Content of Law  164
II. Theories Embodied by Normativity of Law  164
III. Theories Embodied by Social Facts Determining Law  165
BIBLIOGRAPHY  166
PRIVATE LAW
CHAPTER 10
TURKISH CIVIL LAW
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ümit GEZDER, Res. Asst. Yasin BÜYÜK,
Res. Asst. M. Hasanali AKAY, Res. Asst. Melike ERGÜN  169
I. HISTORY  169
II. INTRODUCTION  170
III. LAW OF PERSONS  170
A. Beginning and End of Personality:  171
B. Ability to be Subject of the Rights and Obligations:  171
C. Capacity to Act:  171
1. Full Capacity (Art. 9–13)  172
2. Full Incapacity (Art. 15)  172
3. Limited Capacity (Art. 16)  173
IV. FAMILY LAW  173
A. Engagement  174
B. Marriage  174
1. Formalities of Marriage  174
2. Marriage Impediments (TCC Art. 129–133)  175
C. Divorce  176
V. LAW OF SUCCESSION  177
A. Forced Heirs  177
1. Wills and Testamentary Contracts  177
VI. PROPERTY LAW  178
A. Generally  178
1. Property Right  178
B. Immovable property  178
C. Real Rights (Rights in Rem)  179
1. Limited Rights in rem  179
a. Servitudes  179
b. Real burdens  179
ba. Lien  179
bb. Mortgage  179
D. Possession  180
E. Land register  180
VII. TURKISH OBLIGATION LAW – GENERAL PROVISIONS  180
A. Contracts  181
1. Capacity to Contract  181
2. Formation of the Contract  181
3. Conditions of Validity  182
a. Immorality  182
b. Public Order  182
c. Imperative Rules  183
d. Personal Rights  183
e. Impossibility  183
4. Form of the Contract  183
5. Genuineness of Assent  184
a. Mistake  184
b. Fraud  185
c. Coercion  185
B. Torts  185
1. General  185
2. Conditions  185
3. Compensation  186
C. Unjust Enrichment  186
VIII. SPECIAL PROVISIONS  186
A. CLASSIFICATION OF CONTRACTS THAT ARE REGULATED BY SPECIAL PROVISIONS  186
1. Classification of contracts by their subject and purpose.  186
a. Sales Contracts  186
b. Barter Contracts  187
c. Donation Contracts  187
d. Other types of contracts  187
da. Rental Contracts  187
db. Contract of Loan of an Object for Use and Contract of Loan of an Object for Consume  187
e. Contracts of bailment  188
f. Contracts of guarantee  188
2. Contracts that are not regulated in the Code  188
a. Combined Contracts  188
b. Mixed Contracts  188
BIBLIOGRAPHY  189
CHAPTER 11
TURKISH INDIVIDUAL LABOUR LAW
Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ, Res. Asst. Ömer UĞUR  191
SECTION I GENERAL  191
I. Basic Concepts of Individual Labour Law  191
SECTION II TYPES OF CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT  193
I. General  193
II. Transitory and Continual Contract of Employment  193
A. Transitory Contract of Employment  193
B. Continual Contract of Employment  193
C. Results of the Division  194
III. Contract of Employment with Indefinite Term and Definite Term  194
A. Contract of Employment with Indefinite Term  194
B. Contract of Employment with Definite Term  194
1. Legal ments of the Contract of Employment with Definite Term  195
IV. Part Time and Full Time Contract of Employment  196
V. Contract of Employment with Trial Clause  196
SECTION III TERMINATION OF CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT  198
III. Situations that Terminates the Contract of Employment  198
A. Mutual Rescission  198
B. End of the Fixed Term  198
C. Death  199
II. Termination of the Contract of Employment with Notice  199
A. General  199
B. Termination Notice Periods  199
C. Pay in Lieu of Notice  200
III. Termination of the Contract of Employment with Notice that Contains a Valid Ground  201
A. General  201
B. Valid Grounds for Termination  201
C. Reemployment Lawsuit  202
IV. Rightful Termination of the Contract of Employment  202
A. General  203
B. Termination of Contract by Employees  203
1. Health issues  203
2. Situations that are against the moral rules and good faith  203
3. Act of providence  204
C. Termination of Contract by Employers  205
1. Health issues  205
2. Situations that are against the moral rules and good faith  205
3. Act of providence  206
4. Absence of employee due to arrestmentcustody  207
BIBLIOGRAPHY  208
CHAPTER 12
TURKISH COLLECTIVE LABOUR LAW
Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ, Res. Asst. Muhammed İsmail ÇEKİÇ  209
SECTION I GENERAL INFORMATION  209
SECTION II TRADE UNIONS  211
I. General  211
A. Definition and Formation  211
B. Membership  212
C. Organs  212
II. Freedom of Association  213
A. Aspects of the Freedom of Association  213
B. Individual Freedom of Association  213
1. “Positive” Freedom of Association  213
2. “Negative” Freedom of Association  213
C. Collective Freedom of Association  214
III. Protection  214
A. Protection of workers’ trade union management (İşçi kuruluşu yöneticiliğinin güvencesi)  214
B. Protection of shop stewards (İşyeri sendika temsilciliğinin güvencesi)  214
C. Guarantee of freedom of trade union  214
1. Discrimination During Employment  215
2. Discrimination Regarding Working Conditions  215
3. Discrimination Regarding Termination  215
IV. Dissolution of Trade Unions  215
SECTION III COLLECTIVE LABOUR AGREEMENT  216
I. General  216
A. Types of CLA  216
1. Workplace CLA  216
2. Management CLA  216
3. Group CLA  217
B. CLA Capacity and Power  217
C. Collective Bargaining Process (Toplu Görüşme Süreci)  218
1. Invitation to Collective Bargaining  218
2. Commencement and Period of Collective Bargaining  218
3. Disputes During Collective Bargaining  218
D. Strike and Lock–Out  219
1. General  219
2. Lawful Strike and Lock–Out  219
3. Strike Vote  220
4. Prohibitions of Strikes and Lock–Outs  220
5. Execution of Strike and Lock–Out  220
6. Effects of a Lawful StrikeLock–Out on Contracts of Employment  221
7. Consequences of an Unlawful StrikeLock–Out  221
8. Decision to End a StrikeLock–Out  221
BIBLIOGRAPHY  223
CHAPTER 13
TURKISH SOCIAL SECURITY LAW
Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ, Res. Asst. Ebru KARABACAK  225
I. CONCEPT OF SOCIAL INSURANCE  225
II. TECHNIQUES USED FOR SOCIAL INSURANCE  225
II. QUALIFICATIONS OF SOCIAL INSURANCE  226
IV. THE SOCIAL INSURANCE INSTITUTION  227
V. FINANCING OF SOCIAL SECURITY  228
VI. INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE CONSIDERED TO BE INSURED  229
A. Insurance of Individuals Working Dependently  229
1. Individuals who are considered to be fully insured  229
2. Individuals who are considered to be partially insured  229
B. Insurance of Independent Workers  230
C. Insurance of Public Servants  230
VII. INDIVIDUALS NOT DEEMED TO BE INSURANCE HOLDERS  230
VIII. TYPES OF SOCIAL INSURANCE  231
A. Work Accident and Occupational Diseases Insurance  231
B. Illness Insurance  232
C. Maternity Insurance  233
D. Disability Insurance  233
E. Old–Age Insurance  234
F. Survivors’ Insurance  235
G. Unemployment Insurance  235
H. General Health Insurance  236
IX. PERSONAL RETIREMENT  236
X. SOCIAL ASSISTANCES AND SERVICES  236
BIBLIOGRAPHY  238
CHAPTER 14
TURKISH LAW ON OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
Prof. Dr. M. Refik KORKUSUZ, Asst. Prof. Dr. M. Halit KORKUSUZ  239
SECTION I TASKS OF THE STATE  239
I. Importance of Ensuring Occupational Health and Safety  239
II. Constitutional Basis of Occupational Health and Safety  239
III. Occupational Health and Safety Regulations  240
IV. National Council of Occupational Health and Safety  240
V. Insurance Premium Reinforcement System  240
VI. Inspection of Occupational Health and Safety  240
SECTION II EMPLOYERS’ DUTIES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE WORKSITE  241
I. Employers’ Duties  241
A. Duty to Take All Necessary Precautions  241
B. Duty to Supervise  241
C. Duty of Training and Informing  241
D. Duty to Perform Risk Assessment  242
E. Duty to Perform Healthcare Supervision  242
F. Duty to Report Work Accident and Record Keeping  243
G. Other Duties  243
II. Organization of the Worksite about Occupational Health and Safety  243
A. Committee of Occupational Health and Safety (İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği Kurulu)  243
B. Occupational Safety Experts (İş Güvenliği Uzmanları)  244
C. Occupational Physicians (İşyeri Hekimleri)  244
D. Worksite Health and Safety Unit (İşyeri Sağlık ve Güvenlik Birimi) and Health and Safety Joint Unit (Ortak Sağlık ve Güvenlik Birimi)  245
SECTION III EMPLOYEES’ RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS  246
I. Employees’ Rights  246
A. Right to Abstain from Work  246
B. Right to Participate  247
C. Right to File a Complaint to Administrative Authorities (İhbar Hakkı)  247
D. Right to Terminate the Employment Contract with Valid Reason  248
II. Employees’ Duties  248
SECTION IV OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY SANCTIONS  250
I. Administrative Sanctions  250
A. Administrative Fines  250
B. Suspension of the work  250
C. Disqualification from tendering  251
II. Penal Sanctions  251
III. Legal Sanctions  251
BIBLIOGRAPHY  252
CHAPTER 15
LAW OF COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE
Res. Asst. Emin ÇAMURCU  253
SECTION I COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE  254
I. Elements of Commercial Enterprise  254
A. Aiming to Produce an Income Higher Than the Artisan Enterprise  254
B. Continuity  254
C. Independence  255
II. Contracts Related with Commercial Enterprises  255
SECTION II NOTIONS RELATED TO COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE  256
I. MERCHANT  256
A. Identifying a Merchant  256
1. Natural Persons  256
2. Legal Persons  256
B. Consequences of Being a Merchant  257
1. Bankruptcy  257
2. Role of Commercial Usage and Custom  258
3. Impossibility to Request Reduction of the FeeContractual Penalty  258
4. Right to Demand Payment of a Remuneration and Interest  258
II. Commercial Affair (Ticari İş)  258
A. Presumption of Commercial Affair  259
B. Consequences of Qualifying an Affair as Commercial Affair  260
1. Presumption of Joint Liability  260
2. Interest in Commercial Affairs  260
3. Statute of Limitation Periods in Commercial Affairs  261
II. Commercial Clauses  261
IV. Merchant Assistants  263
A. Commercial Representative (Ticari Temsilci)  263
B. Commercial Delegate (Ticari Vekil)  264
C. Agent (Acente)  265
BIBLIOGRAPHY  267
CHAPTER 16
TURKISH COMPANY LAW
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ferna İPEKEL KAYALI  269
SECTION I OVERVIEW OF COMPANY LAW IN TURKEY  269
I. GENERAL  269
II. COMMERCIAL COMPANIES  270
SECTION II CAPITAL COMPANIES  272
I. JOINT STOCK COMPANIES  272
A. General Assembly  273
B. Board of Directors  277
C. Shareholders’ Rights  279
1. Personal Rights of the Shareholders  279
a. Right of participation in the GM:  279
b. Right to vote:  280
c. Right to information and examination:  280
d. Right to request the appointment of special audit:  281
e. Right to request the nullity of GM resolutions:  281
2. Financial Rights of the Shareholders  282
D. Share Transfer  282
II. LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES  282
A. General Assembly  284
B. Directors  286
C. Share Transfer  287
BIBLIOGRAPHY  289
CHAPTER 17
TURKISH LAW OF NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
Res. Asst. Hasan Onur AKAY  291
SECTION I GENERAL  291
I. Definition and Legislation  291
II. Elements and Characteristics of Negotiable Instruments  292
A. Elements of Negotiable Instruments  292
B. Characteristics of Negotiable Instruments  292
III. Classification of Negotiable Instruments  293
A. Classification Based on the Right Embodied in the Instrument  293
1. Instruments Embodying a Monetary Claim (Alacak Senetleri)  293
2. Commodity Instruments (Emtia Senetleri)  293
3. Equity/Share Instruments (Pay Senetleri)  293
4. Instruments That Serve to Participate in Capital Companies (Ortaklığa Katılma Senetleri)  294
5. Combined Instruments (Karma Nitelikli Senetler)  294
B. Classification Based on the Transfer Procedure of the Instrument  294
1. Registered Negotiable Instruments (Nama Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  294
2. Negotiable Instruments Payable to Order (Emre Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  295
3. Negotiable Instruments Payable to Bearer (Hamile/Hamiline Yazılı Kıymetli Evrak)  295
SECTION II COMMERCIAL PAPERS  296
I. General  296
II. Bills of Exchange  296
A. Form of a Bill of Exchange  296
B. Transfer of Bills of Exchange  297
C. Acceptance (Kabul)  299
D. Recourse for Non–AcceptanceNon–Payment  300
E. Period of Limitation  300
III. Promissory Notes  300
A. General  300
B. Form of a Promissory Note  301
C. Period of Limitation  301
IV. Checks  302
A. General  302
B. Form of a Check  302
C. Period of Presentation  304
D. Transfer of Checks  304
E. Recourse for Non–Payment  305
F. Period of Limitation  305
BIBLIOGRAPHY  306
CHAPTER 18
TURKISH MARITIME LAW
Asst. Prof. Dr. Hacı KARA  307
SECTION I SOURCES OF THE TURKISH MARITIME LAW  307
I. General  307
II. Provisions of the Turkish Commercial Code That Are Related With Maritime Commerce  308
SECTION II SHIP AND OWNERSHIP OF SHIP  309
I. Vessel (Ship)  309
A. Definition and Legal Nature  309
1. Definition  309
2. Legal Nature  309
B. Ship’s Register  309
1. National Ship’s Register  310
a. The ships which can lawfully be registered in the Ship’s Register  310
b. The Ships which cannot be registered in the Ship’s Register  310
2. Turkish International Ship’s Register  310
II. Exercitor Navis and Operator  311
A. Exercitor Navis (Donatan)  311
B. Ship Operator (Disponent Owner)  311
SECTION III MASTER  312
SECTION IV MARITIME COMMERCE CONTRACTS  313
I. Bareboat Charter Party  313
II. Time Charter Party  313
III. Contract Of Affreightment  313
A. Definition and Types of Affreightment Contracts  314
1. Definition  314
2. Types  314
a. Voyage Charter (Sefer Çarteri)  314
aa. Full Charter (Tam Çarter)  314
ab. Partial Charter (Kısmi Çarter)  314
b. Contracts in Liner Shipping (Kırkambar Sözleşmesi)  314
B. Persons Involved in the Affreightment Contract  314
1. Carrier  314
2. Charterer  315
3. Shipper  315
4. Consignee (Receiver)  315
C. Liability of the Carrier  315
1. Duration for Which the Carrier is Liable  315
2. Duration for Acceptance of Delay and the Loss of Goods  316
IV. Contract of Carriage of Passengers  316
SECTION V MARINE ACCIDENTS  317
I. General Average  317
II. Collision  317
III. Salvage  317
SECTION VI MARITIME LIENS AND ENFORCEMENT  318
I. Maritime Liens  318
II. Maritime Enforcement  318
SECTION VII LIMITATION OF LIABILITY AND COMPENSATION OF LOSSES ARISING FROM OIL POLLUTION  321
I. Liability for Sea Pollution  321
II. Limitation of Liability  321
BIBLIOGRAPHY  322
CHAPTER 19
TURKISH INSURANCE LAW
Assoc. Prof. Dr. M. Barış GÜNAY  325
SECTION I INTRODUCTION  325
SECTION II THE INSURANCE ACT (LAW NO. 5684)  327
I. Insurance and Reinsurance Companies (Sigorta ve Reasürans Şirketleri)  327
II. Intermediaries (Sigorta Aracıları)  327
III. Supervision  328
IV. Assurance Account (Güvence Hesabı)  328
V. Insurance Arbitration Scheme (Sigorta Tahkim Sistemi)  328
SECTION III INSURANCE CONTRACTS  330
I. General Provisions  330
A. Obligations and Duties of the Insurer  331
1. Obligation to carry the risk  331
2. Pre–contractual information duty  331
3. Obligation to issue and deliver policy  332
4. Obligation to pay expenses  332
5. Obligation to pay indemnity  332
B. Obligations and Duties of the Insured  332
1. Obligation to pay premium  332
2. Duty of disclosure  333
3. Duty to Provide Information and to Allow Investigation  333
4. Duty to Prevent LossIncrease in Loss  333
II. Special Provisions  334
A. Indemnity Insurances (Zarar Sigortaları)  334
1. Property Insurance (Mal Sigortası)  334
2. Liability Insurance (Sorumluluk Sigortası)  334
B. Personal Insurances (Can Sigortaları)  335
1. Life Insurance (Hayat Sigortası)  335
2. Accident Insurance (Kaza Sigortası)  335
3. Sickness Insurance and Health Insurance (Hastalık ve Sağlık Sigortası)  335
BIBLIOGRAPHY  336
CHAPTER 20
TURKISH INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW
Res. Asst. Dr. Özgür ARIKAN  337
SECTION I Trade Mark Law  338
I. Definition and Registrability of Trade Mark  338
II. Functions of Trade Mark  339
III. Registration of Trade Mark  339
IV. Absolute and Relative Grounds for Refusal  340
V. Trade Mark Protection  343
VI. Duration of Trade Mark Registration  344
SECTION II Patent Law  345
I. Patentability  345
II. Registration, Grant and Ownership of Patent  346
III. Employee Inventions  347
IV. Duration  348
V. Protection of Patent  348
VI. Infringement of Patent Rights  349
BIBLIOGRAPHY  350
CHAPTER 21
TURKISH CIVIL PROCEDURE LAW
Res. Asst. Elif Irmak KILIÇ  351
I. General  351
II. Competence and Venue: Where to Commence an Action  352
A. Jurisdictional Branches and Court Organization  352
B. Competence and Venue  352
III. LAWSUIT  355
A. General  355
B. Parties  355
C. Phases of a Lawsuit  357
1. Exchange of Petitions (Pleading) Phase (Dilekçeler Aşaması)  357
2. Preliminary Investigation Phase (Ön İnceleme Aşaması)  358
3. Investigation Phase (Tahkikat)  359
4. Oral Hearings and Rendering of the Verdict (Sözlü Yargılama ve Hükmün Verilmesi)  360
IV. Interim Measures (Geçici Hukuki Korumalar)  360
V. Legal Remedies  361
A. General  361
B. Appeal Procedure After the Launch Date of Regional Courts of Appeal (Provisions in the CCP Law No. 6100)  362
BIBLIOGRAPHY  365
CHAPTER 22
TURKISH EXECUTION LAW
Res. Asst. Nefise Gökçen GÜRCAN  367
I. General  367
II. Scope of Application  368
III. Basic Concepts and Organization of Turkish Execution Law  368
A. Credit–Debt and Creditor–Debtor in the EBC  368
B. The Executive Organization  369
1. Execution Offices (Art. 1 EBC) (İcra Daireleri)  369
2. Execution Courts (Art. 4 EBC) (İcra Mahkemeleri)  369
3. Relevant Chambers of the Supreme Court  371
IV. Complaint Procedure (Art. 16 – 18 EBC) (Şikayet)  371
A. Legal Character and Function of the Complaint Procedure  371
B. Grounds for Complaint  372
1. Unlawfulness of the Execution Offices’ Actions  372
2. Inappropriateness of the Act to the Circumstances  372
3. Failure to Implement a Right  373
4. Impediment of Observance of a Right Without a Cause  373
C. Procedure  373
1. Limitation Period  374
2. Competence and Venue  374
V. Types of Execution Procedures  374
A. General  374
B. General Attachment Procedure (Art. 46–144 EBC) (Genel Haciz Yoluyla Takip)  375
1. Request for Execution (Art. 58 EBC) (Takip Talebi)  375
2. Order of Payment (Art. 60–61 EBC) (Ödeme Emri)  376
3. Attachment (Art. 78 et seq. EBC)  376
4. Sale of the Attached Goods (Art. 106–137 EBC)  377
5. Reimbursement of the Creditor (Art. 138–144/a EBC)  378
VI. Provisional Attachment Procedure (İhtiyati Haciz)  378
A. General  378
B. Definition and Legal Character of Provisional Attachment  378
C. Conditions of Provisional Attachment  379
1. Provisional Attachment for Due Debts  379
2. Provisional Attachment for Deferred Debts  380
D. Procedure  380
BIBLIOGRAPHY  382
CHAPTER 23
TURKISH BANKRUPTCY AND INSOLVENCY LAW
Res. Asst. Mehmet Akif GÜL  383
I. Turkish Bankruptcy Law  383
A. General  383
B. Bankruptcy Bodies  384
1. Official Bodies  384
a. Fundamental Official Bodies  384
aa. Execution Office  384
ab. Bankruptcy Office  385
ac. Execution Court  385
ad. Commercial Court of First Instance  385
ae. Court of Appeal  386
b. Subsidiary Official Bodies  386
2. Non–Official Bodies  386
C. Grounds for Bankruptcy  386
II. Turkish Insolvency Law  387
A. Postponement of Bankruptcy (İflâsın Ertelenmesi)  387
1. Grounds for Postponement of Bankruptcy  388
a. Procedural Grounds  388
aa. Declaration of Over–indebtedness  388
ab. Request for Postponement of Bankruptcy  388
ac. Submission of the Balance–Sheet  388
ad. Submission of the Rehabilitation Project  389
ae. Payment of the Costs in Advance  389
af. Not to Have Availed of the Extraordinary Grace Period (Fevkalâde Mühlet)  389
b. Substantive Grounds  389
ba. Over–indebtedness  389
bb. Hope to Ensure the Continuance of the Company  390
bc. Protection of Creditors’ Rights  390
B. Reorganisation (Konkordato)  390
1. Ordinary Reorganisation (Adî Konkordato)  391
a. Reorganisation outside Bankruptcy (İflâs Dışı Konkordato)  391
aa. Reorganisation Proposal  391
ab. Examination of the Reorganisation Proposal  391
ac. Respite for Concordat  391
ad. Results of the Respite for Concordat  392
ae. Annulment of the Respite for Concordat  392
af. Creditors’ Meeting  393
ag. Approval of the Reorganisation Project  393
ah. Annulment of the Reorganisation Project  394
b. Reorganisation within Bankruptcy (İflâs İçi Konkordato)  394
2. Reorganisation by way of Abandonment of the Debtor’s Assets (Malvarlığının Terki Suretiyle Konkordato)  395
C. Restructuring of Capital Stock Companies and Cooperatives by Way of Conciliation (Sermaye Şirketleri ve Kooperatiflerin Uzlaşma Yoluyla Yeniden Yapılandırılması)  396
III. Action for Rescission of Disposition – Actio Pauliana (Tasarrufun İptali Davası)  398
BIBLIOGRAPHY  400
CHAPTER 24
TURKISH PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW
Res. Asst. Kazım ÇINAR  403
SECTION I GENERAL INTRODUCTION  403
SECTION II CONFLICT OF LAWS  405
I. General Issues  405
II. Conflict of Law Provisions  406
SECTION III INTERNATIONAL PROCEDURAL LAW  410
I. Jurisdictional Immunity  410
II. International Jurisdiction of Turkish Courts  411
III. Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments  412
IV. International Arbitration  413
SECTION IV TURKISH CITIZENSHIP LAW  415
I. General  415
II. Acquisition of Turkish Citizenship  415
III. Loss of Turkish Citizenship  417
A. Loss of Turkish citizenship by decision of the competent authority  417
B. Loss of Turkish Citizenship by the use of the right of choice  418
SECTION V LAW OF FOREIGNERS  420
I. General  420
II. Residence Permit  421
III. Work Permit  421
IV. Possession of Land in Turkey  422
BIBLIOGRAPHY  424
 


 
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